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Ice 

Cream 

Manufacturing 

Plants 

in the 

Midwest 

Methods, Equipment, and Layout 



Marketing Research Report No. 477 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

Agricultural Marketing Service 

Transportation and Facilities Research Division 

in cooperation with 

PURDUE UNIVERSITY AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 






Ice 

Cream 

Manufacturing 

Plants 

in the 

Midwest 

Methods, Equipment, and Layout 



Marketing Research Re-port No. 477 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

Agricultural Marketing Service 

Transportation and Facilities Research Division 

in cooperation with 

PURDUE UNIVERSITY AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 












PREFACE 

This research was conducted cooperatively by the Purdue University Agricultural 
Experiment Station and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The data on work 
methods and equipment were obtained from studies of ice cream manufacturing- 
operations throughout Indiana. The purpose of the research was to provide ice 
cream plant operators with data and guidelines which could be used in establishing 
and operating ice cream plants more efficiently. The study is part of a broad program 
of research aimed at improving market efficiency and expanding markets for farm 
products. 

The work was conducted under the general supervision of George E. Turner, 
marketing research analyst, Agricultural Marketing Service, and Charles E. French, 
professor of agricultural economics, Purdue University. 

Many dairy plant operators made their plants available for detailed studies of 
ice cream manufacturing operations. Dairy equipment companies provided current 
price data for ice cream plant equipment. 

Dean R. Frazeur, associate professor of dairy manufacturing, Purdue University, 
and Verne D. Rhodes, assistant professor of dairy manufacturing, Purdue Uni- 
versity, provided assistance and many valuable suggestions. 



CONTENTS 



Summary 

Introduction 

Research methods 

I .at >or costs 

Equipment costs 

Definition of terms 

Ice cream plant operations 

Receiving ingredients for ice cream mix. 

Bulk and handtruck method 

Can and handtruck method 

Comparison of methods 

Preparing ice cream mix 

Bulk and H.T.S.T. methods 
Can and H.T.S.T. method. . 

Bulk and batch method 

Can and batch method 

Comparison of methods. . 

Freezing ice cream 

Three-tube method.. 

Single-tube method 

Comparison of the two methods 

Packaging ice cream 

Packaging in cans 

Packaging in cartons 

Packaging in cups 

Summary of packaging operations. _ 

Storing ice cream 

Storing cans 

Storing cartons and cups 

Summary of storing operations 



Pat/e 

11 
I 
1 

I 

1 
_' 

2 
3 
3 

4 
4 
4 
4 
5 
6 
7 



9 
in 
10 
10 
12 
17 
20 
20 
21 
22 
24 



Paye 

Loading out ice cream 25 

Loading out cans 25 

Loading out cartons and cups 25 

Summary of loading out operations. _ 27 

Cleaning manufacturing equipment 27 

Cleaning Type 1 equipment 28 

Cleaning Type 2 equipment 29 

Summary of requirements for cleaning equipment. 29 
Summary of requirements for ice cream plant 

operations 29 

Layout for an ice cream plant.. 29 

Proposed layout for a plant 30 

Can storage cooler 31 

Mix area 32 

Freezing and packaging area 32 

Hardening room 32 

Dry storage room 33 

Machinery room 33 

Laboratory 33 

Lockers and toilet. _ 33 

Offices 34 

Expansion of plant 34 

Automation in the ice cream industry 35 

Receiving mix ingredients 35 

Preparing mix 35 

Freezing ice cream 35 

Packaging ice cream 35 

Storing and loading out ice cream 155 

Cleaning manufacturing equipment .'55 

Appendix 37 



Washington, D. C. 



October 1961 



SUMMARY 



Improved work methods and plant layout can 
reduce costs in a typical plant manufacturing 
150,000 gallons of ice cream annually by $23.69 per 
1,000 gallons, or approximately $3,600 annually. 
This reduction is based on a plant manufacturing 
five flavors of ice cream and packaging it in seven 
sizes of containers. 

All the reductions in costs with the improved 
methods are in equipment; labor costs are higher 
with these methods. The reduction in equipment 
cost offsets the increased labor cost, primarily 
because of the small volume on which this analysis 
is based. Equipment costs are reduced and labor 
costs are increased by using relatively low-cost 
equipment and manual methods, rather than high- 
cost labor-saving equipment, to perform certain 
operations. 

The largest reduction in costs is in the packaging 
cycle. Costs per 1,000 gallons are reduced $12.34 
by filling containers manually. Other significant 



savings, $5.54 for receiving ingredients for ice 
cream mix and $3.69 for preparing the mix, are 
the result of reduced equipment costs. Costs are 
increased with improved methods and plant layout 
in loading out and in cleaning the equipment. Us- 
ing relatively high-cost equipment increases the 
cost of loading out, and more labor is required to 
clean the equipment used with improved methods. 
A layout based on the improved methods is sug- 
gested for a plant manufacturing 150,000 gallons 
annually. The major components of the plant are 
a can storage cooler, a mix area, a freezing and 
packaging area- a hardening room, a dry storage 
room, a laboratory, a machinery room, and a main 
office. The layout shows the relationship between 
the major components and a suggested equipment 
arrangement for each work area. A layout showing 
how the proposed plant could be expanded to man- 
ufacture 300,000 gallons of ice cream annually is 
included in the report. 



Ice Cream Manufacturing Plants in the Midwest 
Methods, Equipment, and Layout 



By .James C. Taylor, industrial engineer 1 
Transportation and Facilities Research Division 

Agricultural .Marketing Service 



INTRODUCTION 



The production and sale of ice cream throughout 
the United States rose from about 554 million gal- 
lons in 1950 to 701 million in 1959, an increase of 
27 percent. During the latter part of the decade, 
approximately 3,400 plants were manufacturing 
ice cream. These plants, both specialized ice cream 
plants and diversified dairy plants, operated with 
buildings and equipment ranging in age from less 
than 1 year up to 30 years. In some of the older 
plants, work methods have changed in only minor 
respects since inception of the business. In others, 
an effort has been made to employ the latest meth- 
ods and equipment. 

As the volume of manufactured ice cream has 
increased, a number of developments have had a 
material effect on manufacturing methods. Pack- 
aging equipment has been developed to increase 
the capacity, and, in many cases, to reduce the cost 
of packaging operations. Improved processing 
equipment of various types and sizes has been 
made available to the plant operator, and a num- 
ber of labor-reducing devices have been developed. 

One significant result of these developments is 
that the manufacturer must select the most eco- 
nomical method of performing each operation from 
the wide variety of work methods and equipment 
currently available. Items of equipment which 
result in profitable operation at one plant may 
cause losses at another. The plant operator must, 
therefore, evaluate the effect of each method and 
each item of equipment on his particular plant if 
he is to maintain a competitive position. 

This study was undertaken to provide assistance 
to the ice cream manufacturer in the scientific 
evaluation of work methods and equipment. The 
objectives were to (1) measure the relative effi- 
ciencies of various work methods and various types 
and combinations of types of equipment used in 
ice cream plants; (2) compare the various combi- 
nations of work methods and equipment to deter- 
mine their effects on the economy of plant opera- 
tions; and (3) develop plant layouts showing 
arrangement of equipment and flow of materials. 

Research methods 

Research was conducted in ice cream manufac- 
turing plants of many types and sizes throughout 

1 Resigned. 



Indiana. The research covered the major types of 
processing, packaging, and materials-handling 
equipment currently in use, and the major varia- 
bles that significantly affect the use of the equip- 
ment. These variables include number of workers 
in a crew, design of the plant, volume handled by 
the plant, and arrangement and utilization of 
equipment. 

Time studies were made of the various work 
methods to (1) determine the time required for 
performing each operation; (2) determine the total 
man-hours of labor and machine-hours of equip- 
ment required ; and (3) provide a basis for develop- 
ing improved work methods and plant designs. 
From these data, labor and equipment costs for 
performing all operations by the use of specified 
methods and equipment were computed. A com- 
parison of these costs shows the relative efficiencies 
obtained with various methods and types of equip- 
ment in ice cream manufacturing plants. 

Management costs, facility costs, and costs of 
ingredients and supplies have not been included 
in this study. These data, therefore, do not reflect 
total plant costs. 



Labor costs 

On the basis of data gathered from Indiana 
plants, a wage rate of $1.75 per hour was used. 
This rate includes wages, Federal Insurance Com- 
pensation Act taxes, unemployment insurance, 
workmen's compensation payments, and certain 
benefits such as vacations and group insurance. 
Labor costs for a particular operation are deter- 
mined by multiplying the total man-hours of pro- 
ductive and unproductive labor by the hourly 
wage rate. 



Equipment costs 

Equipment prices were obtained from dairy 
equipment manufacturers and are based on aver- 
age f.o.b. factory prices for 1958 and 1959. Equip- 
ment costs are grouped into two categories, owner- 
ship costs and operating costs. 

Ownership costs include depreciation, based on 
the straight-line method and using life expectancy 
tables from Internal Revenue Service Bulletin 



I 



"F"; interest, based on a 6-percent rate of the 
average investment; and typical taxes and in- 
surance rates in Indiana, a combined figure of 
2.7 percent on the initial investment. These costs 
are considered to be fixed and are computed on 
an annual basis. 

Operating costs are based on representative costs 
in Indiana. They include electricity at 2.7 cents 
per kilowatt-hour, fuel at 6.7 cents per therm, 
water at 0.018 cent per gallon, and maintenance 
at 35 percent cf the initial cost over the life of the 
equipment. 

Combining total ownership and operating costs 
and dividing by the annual usage provides an 
hourly cost for equipment utilization. 

Definition of terms 

Base time is the time required by a skilled worker 
to perform an operation at a normal pace. 

Productive time is the time allowed for perform- 
ing an operation. It is computed by adjusting base 
time for personal and fatigue allowance. 

Unproductive time is time which is spent on the 
job but which cannot be considered creative. It 



includes such items as unavoidable delay and idle- 
ness. 

Machine-regulated wait time is the time a worker 
or workers are idle because the machine does not 
provide sufficient productive work to keep them 
occupied. 

Personal allowance is the time allowed a worker 
for his personal needs, such as going to the lava- 
tory, washing up, and drinking water. In this re- 
port a personal allowance of 5 percent was added 
to all base times with the exception of those involv- 
ing work in the ice cream hardening room. Because 
of the extremely low temperatures in the harden- 
ing room, a personal allowance of 10 percent was 
added to the base time for any work performed in 
the room. 

Fatigue allowance is the time allowed a worker to 
compensate for weariness induced by the work. 
The inherent fatigue is determined by the nature 
of the work, and the allowance added to the base 
time varies from 5 to 25 percent. 

Elapsed time is the total time consumed by an 
operation from beginning to end ; it includes pro- 
ductive time plus any necessary unproductive 
time. 



ICE CREAM PLANT OPERATIONS 



On the basis of sales forecasts and available stor- 
age space, plant management determines the vol- 
ume of ice cream that should be carried as inven- 
tory in the cold storage room during each season 
of the year. Daily production requirements are 
based on the quantities of each flavor and each 
container size that are needed to replenish the 
stock. Consequently, although the volume of ice 
cream manufactured daily might be essentially 
constant, the daily volume produced in different 
flavors and container sizes is quite irregular. The 
number of flavors and container sizes produced by 
individual plants varies widely, and the variation 
has a material effect on the labor and equipment 
requirements for performing all manufacturing 
operations. 

This study deals with the labor and equipment 
requirements and costs for an ice cream plant with 
an annual volume of 150,000 gallons, about the 
size of the average ice cream plant in Indiana in 
1956. It is' assumed that the plant manufactures 
five flavors'of ice cream and employs seven differ- 
ent sizes of package. The number of flavors, the 
container sizes, and the distribution of production 
by size of container are based on studies of a 
selected number of plants in Indiana. The assumed 
distribution of production by^flavor and container- 
size is shown in table 1. 

It is assumed that the plant operates 8 hours per 
day, 5 days per week, and that the same quantity 
of ice cream is manufactured each day. The ice 
cream will have an overrun (volume of ice cream 



in excess of the volume of mix) of 100 percent. 
Thus the manufacture of 150,000 gallons of ice 
cream will require 75,000 gallons of ice cream mix. 
It is assumed that there is no in-plant loss. 

Ice cream plant operations are divided into 
seven major operating cycles for the purpose of 
analyzing labor and equipment requirements: (1) 
Receiving mix ingredients, (2) preparing mix, (3) 
freezing ice cream, (4) packaging ice cream, (5) 
storing it, (6) loading it out, and (7) cleaning 
manufacturing equipment. The operations com- 
prising each cycle are analyzed on the basis of 
equipment and work methods used. The total 
labor and equipment requirements for each opera- 
tion are computed on the basis of 1,000 gallons of 
ice cream. Tables 15 to 27, inclusive, in the appen- 
dix, show the labor requirements for performing 
each element of the various operations, by each 
work method. The requirements are affected mate- 
rially by the distances products and materials are 
moved between work stations and departments 
of the plant. The average distances are based on 
the suggested layout (fig. 27). 

Time values established for specific operations 
should not be considered *as standards, but as 
devices for measuring therelative efficiencies of 
various methods. 

Operating methods are divided into two groups 
for comparison. Combination "A" methods are 
those commonly used in ice cream plants studied. 
Combination "B" methods are the lowest cost 
methods as determined by an improved layout and 



'able 1. — Flavors of ice cream produced and size of containers: Percentages of total production assumed for a 

plant manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually 





( Jontainer size 


Percent- 


Flavor 


5 -gallon 


2 '.-gallon 


( iallon 


Half- 
gallon 


Pint 


5-ouncc 


3 -ounce 


Total 


age of 
total 


Vanilla - 


Gallons 

4,420 


Gallons 
7,800 
2,080 
3,900 

1,560 
4,680 


G ill in ix 
37,440 


Gallons 
28,704 
5,616 
10, cos 
1,888 
10,556 


Gallons 

7,592 
5,200 
2,080 
1 ,040 

7 . 280 


Gallons 

3,016 


Gallons 
1,540 


G ilhms 
90,512 
12,896 
16,588 

7 ISX 
22,51(1 


Percent 
60 34 


Chocolate . -- . . 


8 60 


Fruit 




i 
1 


1 1 01) 


Nut 




1 99 


Multiflavor. 




15 01 








Total . 


4,420 
2.95 


2(1,020 
13.35 


37,440 
24.96 


60,372 
40.24 


23 192 
15.46 


3,016 
2.01 


1,5-10 
1.03 


150,000 
100.00 


100 00 











the most economical work methods. In several 
operations, combination B methods are manual 
methods. The lowest cost'methods are based on a 
plant manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually, 
and larger plants might profitably use relatively 
high-cost equipment instead of the manual 
methods. 



Receiving ingredients for ice cream mix 

Many plants manufacturing ice cream, particu- 
larly those with low production, purchase mix 
from other ice cream manufacturers or from firms 
which specialize in making mix. The most common 
reason for a plant to purchase mix is that manage- 
ment considers it more economical to buy mix than 
to invest in mix-making equipment. Naturally a 
plant that purchases mix does not receive mix 
ingredients. 

For the purpose of analyzing the labor and 
equipment requirements for a plant manufactur- 
ing 150,000 gallons of ice cream annually, it is 
assumed in this report that the plant prepares its 
mix and therefore receives mix ingredients. The 
ingredients consist of 40-percent cream, condensed 
skim milk, cane sugar, corn sugar, emulsifier, 
stabilizer, and water. The composition of plain ice 
cream mix, by weight of ingredients required to 
prepare a 500-gallon batch, is shown in table 2. A 
500-gallon batch of mix is required in making 1,000 
gallons of ice cream. 

It is also assumed that cream and skim milk are 
received either in bulk (tank trucks) or 10-gallon 
cans, cane and corn sugar in 100-pound bags, and 
emulsifiers and stabilizers in 55-gallon drums. 
Since, however, emulsifiers and stabilizers are used 
in small quantities, their receipts are not consid- 
ered /Nor is water considered. This analysis deals 
with unloading, transporting, and storing cream, 
skim milk, cane sugar, and corn sugar. 

The labor and equipment requirements for re- 
ceiving ingredients are computed on a basis of 



1,000 gallons of ice cream. The quantities of fluids 
required per 1,000 gallons of ice cream are 319.81 
gallons ( 146.27 gallons of cream and 173.54 gallons 
of skim milk). The quantities of cane and corn 
sugar are 763 pounds. Two methods are used to 
perform the receiving operation — bulk and hand- 
truck and can and handtruck. One worker is re- 
quired for each method. 



Table 2. — Plain ice cream mix: Ingredients used in 
preparing a 500-gallon batch 1 



Ingredient 


Weight 


Proportion of 
total weight 


40-percent cream 

Condensed skim milk 

Cane sugar _ . 

Corn sugar _ 

Emulsifier __ 
Stabilizer 


Pun nils 

1,214.00 

1,631.30 

601 .25 

161 .90 

9.25 

9.25 

99S.10 


Percent 

26 . 25 

35 . 27 

13.00 

3.50 

.20 

.20 


Water.. 


2 1 . 58 






Total - 


1,625.05 


100.00 







'These ingredients result in ice cream mix with a butterfal 
content of 10.53 percent, a nonfat milk solids content of 
10. 93 percent, and a total solids content of 27.82 percent. 



Bulk and handtruck method 

With the bulk and handtruck method fluid 
ingredients are received in tank trucks and are 
pumped directly from the tank into cream and 
skim milk holding tanks. Cane and corn sugar are 
received in 100-pound ^bags and transported to 
storage. 

In receiving fluid ingredients the worker closes 
the drain valves on the storage tanks, starts the 
pump, waits for the milk and cream to be pumped 
from the tank truck into the storage vat, then stops 
the pump. The truck driver connects and discon- 



nects the truck tank drain hose. His labor is not 
included in the plant's labor requirements. The 
elapsed time required for receiving cream and skim 
milk for 1,000 gallons of ice cream is 0.47 hours. 

The worker loads bags of cane and corn sugar 
onto a 4-wheel handtruck at the door of the plant 
and transports them an average distance of 16 feet 
to point of storage. He manually removes the bags 
from the truck, stacks them on a pallet, then 
returns the truck to the entrance door. The elapsed 
time per 1,000 gallons of ice cream for receiving 
cane and corn sugar is 0.06 hour. 

The labor and equipment requirements and 
costs per 1,000 gallons of ice cream for receiving 
ingredients are as follows : 

Man-hours Cost 

Labor 0.53 SO. 93 

Machine 
hours 
Equipment: 

600 gallon cream tank •_ . 58 . 40 2 . 20 

600 gallon skim milk tank 58 . 40 2 . 20 

6,000 pound-per-hour centrifugal 

pump -47 .17 

2 inch I. D. piping .47 .48 

4 wheel handtruck .06 .04 

Total 117.80 5.09 

Total cost for labor and equipment 6. 02 

The requirements for two 600-gallon storage 
tanks are based on the use of the tanks 24 hours a 
day, 7 days a week, since a supply of ingredients 
is maintained in them at all times. 

Can and handtruck method 

When this method is employed, cream and skim 
milk are received in 10-gallon cans, and sugar is 
received in 100-pound sacks. The canned ingredi- 
ents are stored at a temperature of 30° to 35° F. in 
either a can storage cooler or a vestibule of the 
hardening room. The ingredients remain in cans 
until they are needed for the mixmaking operation. 
To receive cans, a worker loads them onto a 4- 
wheel handtruck, moves the truck 11 feet to the 
storage area, unloads and stacks cans, and returns 
empty truck to the receiving point. The same 
handtruck is used for receiving both liquid and 
dry ingredients. The elapsed time required for re- 
ceiving cans of fluid ingredients by this method is 
0.19 hour per 1,000 gallons of ice cream. 

Sugar is received in the same manner as in the 
bulk and handtruck method. 

The labor requirements per 1,000 gallons cf ice 
cream for receiving fluid and dry ingredients with 
the can and handtruck method are 0.25 man-hcur. 
The cost is $0.44. The equipment cost based on 
the use of a 4-wheel handtruck for 0.25 machine- 
hour is $0.04. The total cost is $0.48. 

Comparison of methods 

The cost for receiving ingredients with the can 
and handtruck method is $5.54 per 1,000 gallons 
of ice cream less than with the bulk and handtruck 
method. Most of the reduction in cost with the 



can and handtruck method is the result of lower 
equipment costs. Storage tanks are not used with 
this method because fluid ingredients are stored in 
the containers in which they are received. Al- 
though practically no physical labor is involved 
in receiving fluid ingredients in bulk, the worker's 
waiting time during pumping is more than double 
the time required for handling cans. 

Preparing ice cream mix 

One of the most important processes involved 
in the manufacture of ice cream is preparing the 
mix. The method of preparing mix affects not only 
the flavor and texture of the finished product, but 
the cost as well. Among the plants which manu- 
facture their own mix, no two processes are exactly 
alike. Ingredients, equipment, mix storage periods, 
and pasteurizing time and temperature all vary 
from plant to plant. 

The mix ingredients used in this analysis are 
listed in table 2. It is assumed that mix is stored 
overnight. The pasteurizing time and temperature 
used in this analysis are based on the regulations 
specified by the Indiana State Board of Health. 
Its regulations state that the mix shall be held at 
a temperature of 155° F. for 30 minutes, or at a 
temperature of 175° F. for 25 seconds. 

Preparing the mix involves assembling and 
transporting ingredients from the storage areas to 
the mixing area, weighing and mixing ingredients, 
and pasteurizing, homogenizing, cooling, and stor- 
ing the mix. Four methods may be used for process- 
ing and storing mix: (1) Bulk and H.T.S.T. (high 
temperature short time), (2) can and H.T.S.T., 
(3) bulk and batch, or (4) can and batch. 

Bulk and H.T.S.T. method 

When the bulk and H.T.S.T. method is em- 
ployed, raw cream and skim milk are pumped 
directly from the storage tanks to a weigh tank 
(fig. 1). They are then pumped to a mix tank, 
mixed with other ingredients, and finally pumped 
through the H.T.S.T. pasteurizer, through the 
homogenizer, and to the storage vats. The worker 
starts the pump to pump cream from the storage 
tank to a 50-gallon weigh tank, weighs the cream 
and pumps it to the mix tank, and stops the pump. 
He weighs and pumps skim milk to the mix tank 
in the same manner. He then pushes a 4-wheel 
handtruck to the storage area for dry ingredients, 
loads sacks of cane and corn sugar onto the truck, 
and pushes it an average distance of 32 feet to the 
mixirg area. There a second worker helps him open 
the sacks and empty them into the mixing tank. 
The second worker performs ether ice cream mak- 
ing operations the remainder of the time. The first 
worker adds water to the weigh tank, weighs it, 
and pumps it to the mixing tank. The final ingredi- 
ents, the stabilizer and the emulsifier, are taken 
from drums in the dry storage area, measured into 
buckets of water, mixed, and poured into the mix- 



•) 


ill 

: (If m 


y "W 


-1 

f ■ 


:.>' [■■ B '^H 









l^^^^r-rr 




BN-13459-x 

Figure 1. — Liquid mix ingredients are measured in a weigh 
tank supported on a scale before the mixing operation. 

ing tank. Mechanical agitators in the tank contin- 
uously mix ingredients as they are added to the 
tank. 

From the mixing tank the mix is pumped to and 
through the pasteurizer (figs. 2 and 3) where it is 
pasteurized and cooled to 40° F., through the 
homogenizer (fig. 4), and into a storage vat (fig. 5), 
where it is further cooled to 30° F. 




BN-13458-x 



Figure 2. — An H.T.S.T. pasteurizer with a holding tube in 
the left foreground and a pasteurizer surge tank immediately 
behind the tube. 



BN-13457-x 



Figure 3. — The H.T.S.T. panel houses control switches and 
indicates and records conditions within the pasteurizer. 

The elapsed time per 1,000 gallons of ice cream 
for processing and storing mix by the bulk and 
H.T.S.T. method is 2.24 hours. The labor require- 
ments, based on one worker for 2.24 man-hours 
and one for 0.05 man-hour, are 2.29 man-hours. 
The labor and equipment requirements and costs 
per 1,000 gallons with the bulk and H.T.S.T. 
method are as follows: 

Man-hours Cost 

Labor 2.29 $4.01 

Machine 

hours 
Equipment: 

4-wheel handtruck 0.1-4 .10 

6,000-pound-per-hour centrifugal 

pump .47 .17 

1 ! 2-inch I. D. piping .47 .58 

50-gallon weigh tank 1 . 20 .46 

Platform scale 1.20 .90 

6,000-pound-per-hour centrifugal 

pump .64 .18 

1 ] 2-inch I. D. piping .64 .13 

300-gallon mix tank 1.60 1.59 

6,000-pound-per-hour centrifugal 

pump .86 .18 

10,000-pound-per-hour centrifugal 

pump .86 .11 

5,400-pound-per-hour H.T.S.T. 

pasteurizer ,_ ■ .86 14.75 

600-gallon-per-hour homogenizer. .86 4.21 

1 ! 2-inch I. D. piping .86 0.61 

:'.()( (-gallon storage vat 58.40 2.31 

600-gallon storage vat... 58.40 3.50 

Total 127.46 29.78 

Total cost for labor and equipment 33. 79 

The variation in costs of identical items of 
equipment is due to the cost (ownership and 
operating) of the equipment and the number of 
hours it is used annually. 

Can and H.T.S.T. method 

The can and H.T.S.T. method is employed when 
raw skim milk and cream are received in 10-gallon 




Figure 4.— The 



homogenizer breaks 
particles of mix. 



up 



BN-13456-x 
and intersperses 



cans, and when mix is pasteurized by an H.T.S.T. 
pasteurizer. With this method, the worker loads 
10-gallon cans of cream and skim milk on a 4-wheel 
handtruck and transports them approximately 15 
feet from the storage cooler to the mixing area. The 
cans are then opened and emptied into the weigh 
tank, and the skim milk and cream are weighed 
and pumped to the mixing tank. Cans are rinsed 
and returned to the cooler. Water, cane and corn 
sugar, stabilizer, and emulsifier are added to the 
tank in the same manner as that described for the 
bulk and H.T.S.T. method. After all ingredients 
have been weighed and mixed, the method of 
pasteurizing, homogenizing, and storing is identical 
to the bulk and H.T.S.T. method. 

The elapsed time per 1,000 gallons of ice cream 
with this method is 2.23 hours. The labor require- 
ments, based on one worker for 2.23 man-hours 
and one worker for 0.05 man-hour, are 2.28 man- 
hours. The labor and equipment requirements and 
costs per 1,000 gallons with the can and H.T.S.T. 
method are as follows: 




Cost 
$3.99 



0.10 
.46 
.91 

.18 

.13 

1.59 

.18 

.11 



.86 


14.75 


.86 


4.21 


.86 


.61 


58.40 


2.31 


58.40 


3.50 


126.31 


29.04 


lent 


33.03 



Man-hours 

Labor 2.28 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment : 

4-wheel handtruck 0.61 

50-gallon weigh tank .86 

Platform scale .86 

6, 000 -pound-per-hour centrifugal 

pump .64 

lf-inch I.D. piping .64 

300-gallon mix tank 1.60 

6,000-pound-per-hour centrifugal 

pump .86 

10,000-pound-per-hour centrifugal 

pump .86 

5,400-pound-per-hour H.T.S.T. 

pasteurizer 

600-gallon-per-hour homogenizer 

If- inch I.D. piping 

300-gallon storage vat 

600-gallon storage vat 

Total 

Total cost for labor and equipment 



Bulk and batch method 

The bulk and batch method of processing and 
storing mix is employed when liquid ingredients 
are received and stored in bulk, and individual 
batches of mix are pasteurized in a vat. Ingredients 
are assembled and weighed in the manner de- 
scribed for the bulk and H.T.S.T. method but are 
mixed in a pasteurizing vat. As ingredients are 
added to the vat, the worker turns on the steam at 
the pasteurizing vat, and the ingredients are heated 
to a temperature of 160° F. (mix is often heated to 
160° to compensate for any temperature drop dur- 
ing the holding period). The steam is then turned 
off, and the mix is held in the vat for 30 minutes. 
After the holding period the mix is drained from 
the vat, pumped through a homogenizer, a plate 
cooler, which reduces the temperature to 40° F., 
and thence to a storage vat where the temperature 
is lowered to 30° F. 

The elapsed time is 4.00 hours per 1,000 gallons 
of ice cream. The labor required, based on one 
worker for 4.00 man-hours and one worker for 0.05 
man-hour, is 4.05 man-hours. The labor and equip- 
ment requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons of 
ice cream with the bulk and batch method are as 
follows: 



BN-13455-x 

Fie. ike 5. — Ice cream mix is stored and cooled in holding vats. 



Man-hours 
Labor 4. 05 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment: 

4-wheel handtruck 0.14 

6,000-pound-per-hour centrifugal 

pump .47 

li-inch I.D. piping .47 

50-gallon weigh tank 1.20 

Platform scale 1.20 

6,000-pound-per-hour centrifugal 

pump -64 

1 5-inch I.D. piping .64 

300-gallon pasteurizing vat 3.31 

600-gallon-per-hour homogenizer. .86 

5,400-pound-per-hour plate cooler .86 



Cost 
$7.09 



.10 

.17 
.58 
.46 
.90 

.18 

.16 

5.13 

4.21 

5.48 



6 



Machine- 
Equipment — Continued hours Cost 

l£-inch I. D. piping .86 .59 

300-gallon storage vat 58. 40 2.31 

600-gallon storage vat 58.40 3.50 

Total 127.45 23.77 

Total cost for labor and equipment 30.86 

Can and batch method 

The can and batch method involves assembling 
and weighing ingredients in the manner described 
for the can and H.T.S.T. method, and pasteuriz- 
ing, homogenizing, cooling, and storing mix in the 
manner described for the bulk and batch method. 

The elapsed time per 1,000 gallons of ice cream 
is 3.99 hours. The labor required, based on one 
worker for 3.99 man-hours and one worker for 0.05 
man-hour, is 4.04 man-hours. The labor and equip- 
ment requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons of 
ice cream for processing and storing mix with the 
can and batch method are as follows: 

Man-hours Cost 

Labor 4.04 $7.07 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment : 

4-wheel handtruck 0.61 0.10 

50-gallon weigh tank .86 .46 

Platform scale .86 .91 

6,000-pound-per-hour centrifugal 

P-pump .64 .18 

U-inch I. D. piping. _ .64 .16 

300-gallon pasteurizing vat 3.31 5. 13 

600-gallon-per-hour homogenizer. .86 4.21 

5, 400-pound- per-hour plate cooler .86 5.48 

1 -J -inch I.I), piping .86 .59 

300-gallon storage vat 58.40 2.31 

600-gallon storage vat 58 . 40 3 . 50 

Total 126.30 23.03 

Total cost for labor and equipment 30 . 10 

Comparison of methods 

The lowest cost method for preparing mix is the 
can and batch method (table 3). The low cost of 



this method is due solely to the relatively low-cost 
equipment used with it. Labor costs are almost as 
great with this method as with the bulk and batch 
method and are considerably greater than with 
either the bulk and H.T.S.T. or the can and 
H.T.S.T. methods. It does not require the pump 
and piping required by the bulk and batch or bulk 
and H.T.S.T. methods for transferring cream and 
skim milk from storage. Furthermore, a vat 
pasteurizer costs considerably less than the 
H.T.S.T. pasteurizer. 

Freezing ice cream 

Freezing is the process which converts liquid ice 
cream mix to semifrozen ice cream. The process 
occurs as the mix is pumped through a freezing 
cylinder, which is enclosed by a full-flooded 
ammonia jacket. The cylinder houses a revolving 
mutator, or dasher, which incorporates air into the 
mix, scrapes frozen ice cream from the cylinder 
walls, and ejects the ice cream from the cylinder. 
Since the ice cream must be packaged, the function 
of the freezer is to produce a stiff semifrozen prod- 
uct rather than a frozen product. 

Freezing is characterized by short production 
runs, necessitated by frequency changes in flavors 
and container sizes. Packaging and storing opera- 
tions are paced by the freezing rate. Thus a delay 
in freezing automatically results in a delay in these 
other operations. 

Two types of freezers are commonly found in ice 
cream plants — the single-tube freezer and the 
three-tube freezer. A plant with an annual volume 
of about 150,000 gallons would require either two 
single-tube freezers or one three-tube freezer. The 
labor and equipment requirements for freezing, 
therefore, are analyzed on the basis of freezing ice 
cream by the three-tube method and by the single- 
tube method. 

The freezing rate of both types of freezers 
varies widely, and plants often operate the freezers 
at less than full capacity. Usually the rate at which 
freezers are operated is determined by the size and 
organization of the work crew. The rate is also 



Table 3. — Preparing ice cream mix: Labor and equipment requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons of ice 
cream in a plant manufacturing 150.000 gallons annually, bij method l 





Requirements 


Costs 


Method 


Labor 


Equipment 


Labor 


Equipment 


Total 


Bulk'and H.T.S.T 


Man-hours 
2.29 
2.28 
4.05 
4.04 


Machine- 
hours 
127.46 
126.31 
127.45 
126.30 


Dollars 
4.01 
3.99 
7.09 
7.07 


Dollars 
29.78 
29.04 
23.77 
23.03 


Dollars 
33 . 79 


Can and H.T.S.T 


33.03 


Bulk and batch. __ 


;<i.m; 


( 'an and batch. . . . .. _. .. 


30.10 







1 For percentage of volume packaged in each size of container, see table 1. 



based on the size of the container being filled. 
Freezers would be operated at a much faster rate 
for filling 5-gallon cans than for filling 5-ounce 
cups. 

For the purpose of comparing the labor and 
equipment requirements for the two methods, the 
rate of freezing for each container size is the same 
for both methods. The freezing rates are 5-gallon 
and 2^-gallon cans, 185 gallons per hour; gallon 
cartons, 140 gallons per hour; half-gallon and pint 
cartons, 100 gallons per hour; and 5-ounce and 3- 
ounce cups, 60 gallons per hour. It is also assumed 
that only one container size and one flavor will be 
filled at one time. Regardless of the method em- 
ployed, all freezing operations are performed by 
one worker. 

Three-tube method 

The three-tube freezer (fig. 6) consists of three 
independent freezing tubes, each with a capacity 
of 100 gallons per hour. The maximum capacity 
of the freezer is 300 gallons per hour. Other items 
of equipment include a three-compartment flavor 
tank, each compartment having a capacity of 
125 gallons of mix, a fruit feeder (fig. 7), two 
6,000-pound-per-hour centrifugal pumps, and pip- 
ing. Since the assumed rates for filling 5-gallon 
cans, 2 ^-gallon cans, and gallon cartons are in 
excess of 100 gallons per hour, two tubes will be 
used when freezing for these containers. Smaller 
containers will require only one tube. 

In the freezing of ice cream, mix is pumped from 
the storage vat to the flavor tank, flavor and color- 
ing are added, mix is then pumped from the flavor 
tank through the freezer, and fruit is added to the 
ice cream as it leaves the freezer. 

Flavor and coloring are added to each 125-gallon 
batch of mix, or four times for each 1,000 gallons 
of ice cream (1 gallon of mix is equivalent to 2 
gallons of ice cream). As the mix begins to enter 
the tank, the worker starts the tank agitator and 
adds flavor and coloring to the mix. 





BX-13444-x 



BN-13454- 



Figuhe 6. — A three-tube freezer. 



Figure 7. — Fruit is added to the large hopper of the fruit 
feeder and forced into the ice cream. It is then uniformly 
mixed in the vertical mixing chamber to the left of the 
hopper. 



Pumping mix through the freezer is completely 
automatic; the only labor is that required for set- 
ting up the freezer. Setting up involves the worker 
starting the pumps to pump ammonia into the 
accumulator of the freezer, which forces ice ci'eam 
through the cylinder until the desired stiffness is 
obtained, and shutting down the freezer. Setups 
are required each time the freezer is started. Ap- 
proximately four setups are required per 1,000 
gallons of ice cream. 

The fruit feeder is used for metering fruit, nuts 
or candy into the ice cream as it leaves the freezer. 
Since it is quite difficult to achieve and maintain 
the same conditions in two freezer tubes which are 
producing for a common package, the feeder is also 
used to blend the product of two tubes, or two 
freezers, and eliminate any color variation within 
the container. 

The rate at which the fruit, nuts, or candy are 
fed into the ice cream varies for different products. 
On the average, however, fruits, nuts, or candy are 
added to the feeder hopper three times during the 
freezing of 1,000 gallons of ice cream. When the 
three-tube freezer method is employed for the 



assumed plant, the feeder is used when 5-gallon 
cans, 2^-gallon cans, gallon cartons, and a portion 
of the half-gallon and pint cartons are being filled. 
Labor is required for setting up the freezer, the 
fruit feeder, and adding color and flavor. The num- 
ber of setups varies by container sizes. Thus the 



labor requirements vary. Because of slower freez- 
ing rates, which result in greater machine utiliza- 
tion, equipment costs increase as container sizes 
are reduced. The requirements per 1,000 gallons 
for each container size when the three-tube method 
is employed are as follows: 



Item 


5- and 2\- 
gallon cans 


Gallon 


cartons 


Half-gallon 
cartons 


Pint cartons 


5- and 3-ounce 
cups 




Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Labor -- .. .. 


3.56 


$6.23 


3.56 


$6.23 


2.02 


$3.54 


2.02 


$3.54 


1.54 


$2.70 






Equipment: 

3-tube freezer _ 


Machine- 
hours 

5.41 
6.18 
5.41 

.77 

.77 


12.66 
1.60 
3.47 
1.06 

.35 


Machine- 
hours 

7.14 
7.91 
7.14 

.77 

.77 


16.71 
2.05 
4.59 
1.06 

.35 


Machine- 
hours 

10.00 

10.77 

4.32 

.77 

.77 


20.50 
2.79 
2.77 
1.06 

.35 


Machine- 
hours 

10.00 
10.77 

4.48 
.77 

.77 


20.50 

2.79 
2.88 
1.06 

.35 


Machine- 
hours 

16.67 
17.44 


34.26 


375-gallon flavor tank 

Fruit feeder 


4.51 


14-inch I.D. piping .. 

6,000-pound-per-hour 
centrifugal pump . 


.77 
.77 


1.06 
.35 


Total 


18.54 


19.14 


23.73 


24.76 


26.63 


27.47 


26.79 


27.58 


35.65 


40.18 






Total cost for labor and 
equipment _ _ _ _ 




25.37 




30.99 




31.01 




31.12 




42.88 









On the basis of freezing 1,000 gallons of ice cream 
in all container sizes, in the ratio assumed for the 
plant manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually 
(table 1), the cost for the three-tube method is 
$30.39. The labor cost, which accounts for approx- 
imately 15 percent of the total cost, is $4.57. Since 
freezing is primarily a machine-controlled process, 
the equipment cost, $25.82 per 1,000 gallons, is the 
greatest portion of the total cost. 

Single-tube method 

The equipment employed in freezing ice cream 
by the single-tube method includes two single-tube 



freezers (fig. 8), each with a capacity of 150 gallons 
per hour; two 50-gallon flavor tanks (fig. 9); a 
fruit feeder; two 6,000-pound-per-hour centrifugal 
pumps; and piping. The two freezers operating to- 
gether will freeze a maximum of 300 gallons of ice 
cream per hour. The use of two freezers and two 
flavor tanks provides an adequate freezing capac- 
ity, reduced changeover time, and flexibility when 
freezing two or more flavors for a common carton. 
The method employed for freezing by the single- 
tube method is essentially the same as that de- 
scribed for the three-tube method. Since flavor 
tanks have a capacity of only 50 gallons, however, 




BN-13453-x 



Figure 8. — Single-tube freezers. 




BN-13452-x 

Figure 9. — Individual flavor tanks feeding mix into ice cream 
freezers. 



flavor and coloring must be added to the tanks 10 
times for each 1,000 gallons of ice cream. With the 
single-tube method, the feeder is used only for 5- 
and 2 ^-gallon cans and a portion of the half-gallon 
and pint cartons. Fruit, nuts, or candy are added 
to the feeder hopper approximately three times 
per 1,000 gallons of ice cream for both freezing 
methods. 

Labor is required for setting up the freezer, for 
the fruit feeder, and for adding color and flavor. 



The labor requirements vary for different container 
sizes in the same manner as they did with the 
three-tube method. As with the three-tube method, 
equipment costs increase as the freezing rates and 
the container sizes decrease. This relationship, 
however, does not apply for 5- and 2^-gallon cans 
since two freezers and two flavor tanks are re- 
quired. The labor and equipment requirements 
per 1,000 gallons for freezing by the single-tube 
method are as follows: 



Item 


5- and 2^- 
gallon cans 


Gallon cartons 


Half-gallon 
cartons 


Pint cartons 


5- and 3-ounce 
cups 




Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Labor _ 


4.10 


S7.18 


1.81 


$3.17 


2.29 


S4.01 


2.29 


S4.01 


1.81 


S3 . 17 


Equipment : 

Two single-tube freezers ._ 
One single-tube freezer 


Machine- 
hours 

5.41 


11.44 


Machine- 
hours 




Machine- 
hours 




Machine- 
hours 




Machine- 
hours 




7.14 


15.35 


10.00 


20.80 


16.66 


21.50 


16.67 


35.84 


Two 50-gallon flavor tanks 
One 50-gallon flavor tank- 


6.18 


1.50 




7.91 


1.98 


10.77 
4.32 

.77 

.77 


2.58 

4.25 
.91 

.35 


10.77 

4.48 
.77 

.77 


2.69 

4.40 

.91 

.35 


17.44 


4.36 


Fruit feeder 


5.41 

.77 

. 77 


5.32 

.91 

.35 




li-inch I.D. piping.. 

Two 6,000-ponnd-per- 
hour centrifugal pumps. 


.77 
.77 


.91 
.35 


.77 
. 77 


.91 
.35 


Total 


18.54 


19.52 


16.59 


18.59 


26.63 


28.89 


26.79 


29.85 


35.65 


41.46 






Total cost for labor and 
equipment.. 




26.70 




21.76 




32.90 




33.86 




44.63 









Freezing 1,000 gallons of ice cream for all con- 
tainer sizes, in the ratio shown in table 1, costs 
$29.62 with the single-tube method. The labor 
requirements are 2.45 man-hours, and the labor 
cost is $4.29. The equipment requirements are 
23.12 machine-hours, and the equipment cost is 
$25.33. Labor costs account for about 14.5 percent 
of the total cost. 

Comparison of the two methods 

Freezing 1,000 gallons of ice cream for all con- 
tainer sizes, in the same ratio of production as 
assumed for the plant manufacturing 150,000 
gallons annually (table 1), costs $30.39 with the 
three-tube method and $29.62 with the single-tube 
method. 

With both methods, labor accounts for a small 
percentage of the total cost. The cost of adding 
flavor and coloring to the mix is less for the three- 
tube method because the large tank compartments 
require a less frequent turnover of mix batches. 
Labor costs are greater for adding fruit by the 
three-tube method because the more frequent use 
of the feeder increases the total feeder setup time. 
The cost of freezer setup is greater for the three- 
tube method because when ice cream is frozen for 
gallon cartons, two tubes of the three-tube freezer 
are required as opposed to one single-tube freezer. 



Equipment costs are approximately the same for 
both methods. In analyzing the freezer costs, it 
should be recalled that in neither case are the 
freezers fully utilized. 

Packaging ice cream 

The labor and equipment requirements for pack- 
aging ice cream vary widely for different types and 
sizes of containers. Therefore, the packaging of ice 
cream is analyzed on the basis of packaging ice 
cream in cans, in cartons, and in cups. 

Packaging in cans 

Ice cream is packaged in 5- and 2^-gallon fiber- 
board cans. Ice cream in these sizes of containers is 
distributed almost exclusively to restaurants and 
soda fountains for the sale of dipped ice cream. 
The 5-gallon can measures approximately 9 f inches 
in diameter by 18f inches in height. The 2\- 
gallon can measures approximately 9\ inches in 
diameter by 9| inches in height. Packaging bulk 
ice cream in cans involves forming cans and filling 
cans. Two methods are employed — the single- 
spindle, conveyor and the single-spindle, manual. 
Although the methods for handling 5- and 2|- 
gallon cans are the same, labor and equipment 
requirements vary for the two sizes. Regardless 



10 



of the method employed or the size of can being 
packaged, only one worker is required. 

The analysis of packaging operations is based on 
a plant packaging 4,420 gallons annually in 5- 
gallon cans, and 20,020 gallons in 2i-gallon cans. 
As previously stated, the assumed rate for filling 
the cans is 185 gallons per hour. 

Single-Spindle, Conveyor Method. — In the 
single-spindle, conveyor method, the worker uses 
a single-spindle can former to form the cans and 
moves the cans on a roller conveyor to fill, close, 
and label them. 

The can former is a motor-driven device consist- 
ing of a spindle and a revolving crimper. It is 
adaptable for forming various sizes of containers 
having the same diameter. To form cans, the 
worker positions the side piece and top ring over 
the spindle, lowers the revolving crimper, and 
crimps top ring to side piece, raises crimper and 
inverts the can on the spindle, positions the bottom 
piece on the can, lowers crimper and crimps the 
bottom to the can, raises crimper, removes the can 
from the spindle, inverts the can and places it on a 
roller conveyor. 

The conveyor is 12 feet long and extends from 
the can former to a belt conveyor leading into the 
hardening room. A filling device (fig. 10) is situated 





BN-13450-x 

Figure 11. — A scale-mounted conveyor section is inserted in 
the conveyor line to permit a continuous flow of cans with 
minimum handling. 

above the conveyor; a platform scale is installed 
in the conveyor (fig. 11) so that cans may be 
weighed with a minimum of labor; and a roller 
stamping device (fig. 12) is attached to the con- 
veyor frame to automatically stamp the flavor and 
date on each can. 

To fill cans, the worker pushes a can along the 
conveyor until it is directly beneath the filler, fills 
the can, places a lid on the can, weighs every tenth 
can to check the weight, and pushes the can onto 
the belt conveyor. While the can is being filled the 
worker forms cans. 




BN-13451-x 

Figure 10. — Cans are filled by a device attached to a freezer 
pipe. 



Figure 12. — After the lid is positioned and the can weighed, 
the flavor is automatically rolled on by a stamping device. 



11 



The total labor and equipment requirements for 
packaging 1,000 gallons of ice cream in 5- and 2|- 
gallon cans with the single-spindle, conveyor 
method are as follows: 



gallon cans with the single-spindle, manual method 
are as follows: 



Item 


5-gallon cans 


2|-gallon cans 




Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Labor _ 


5.72 


$10.01 


6.84 


$11.97 


Equipment: 

Single-spindle can 
former _ 

Platform scale 

Bulk filler 

12-ft. roller con- 
veyor . _ _ . 


Machine- 
hours 

1.10 

.01 
5.41 

5.41 

.08 

5.41 


1.93 

.86 

1.06 

1.00 

.91 

.33 


Machine- 
hours 

2.10 

.02 

5.41 

5.41 

.15 
5.41 


3.69 
1.73 
1.06 

1.00 


Can-stamping 
device . 


1.71 


lj-inch I.D. 
piping . _ 


.33 






Total 


17.42 


6.09 


18.50 


9.52 






Total cost for 
labor and 
equipment. 




16.10 




21.49 









Included in the labor requirements for packag- 
ing ice cream in 5-gallon cans are 4.01 man-hours 
of machine-regulated wait time. This unproductive 
time is the result of worker waiting for the cans to 
fill. The labor requirements for filling 2^-gallon 
cans include 2.71 man-hours of waiting time. Both 
labor and equipment costs are greater for packag- 
ing 2|-gallon cans than for packaging 5-gallon 
cans. Labor costs are greater because more setups 
are required for packaging ice cream in 27-gallon 
cans than in 5-gallon cans because of the ratios 
assumed in this report. Equipment costs are 
greater because more cans are formed, weighed, 
and stamped per 1,000 gallons of ice cream. 

Single-Spindle, Manual Method. — In this 
method, the worker uses a single-spindle can 
former but moves the cans manually to fill, close, 
and label them. Cans are formed in the same man- 
ner as that described for the conveyor method. 
After being formed, however, the empty cans are 
placed on a worktable. To fill cans, the worker 
places an empty can on a pallet under the filler and 
a second empty can on the pallet near the filler; 
when the can is full, he replaces it with the empty 
can. He places the full can on a worktable, puts a 
lid on the can, stamps the flavor and date on the 
can with a hand stamp, weighs every tenth can on 
a table scale, and pushes the can to one side of the 
table. The worker forms cans while cans are beinp; 
filled. 

The labor and equipment requirements per 
1,000 gallons for packaging ice cream in 5- and 2 h- 





5-gallon cans 


2J-gallon cans 


Item 


Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Man- 
hours 


Cost 


Labor. _ . 


5.72 


$10.01 


6.84 


$11.97 






Equipment: 

Single-spindle can 
former . _ 

30- by 48-inch 
stainless steel 
worktable 

Bulk filler 

Table scale 

U-inch I.D. 
piping _ 


Machine- 
hours 

1.10 

.94 

5.41 

.01 

5.41 


1.93 

.03 
1.06 

.01 

.26 


Machine- 
hours 

2.10 

1.76 

5.41 

.04 

5.41 


3.69 

.06 

1.06 

.05 

.26 






Total 


12.87 


3.29 


14.72 


5.12 






Total cost for 
labor and 
equipment 




13.30 




17.09 



Labor requirements included 3.17 man-hours of 
machine-regulated wait time in packaging 5-gallon 
cans and 1.14 man-hours in packaging 2§-gallon 
cans. This unproductive time is due to the worker's 
waiting for the cans to fill. As in the single-spindle, 
conveyor method, costs are higher for 2|-gallon 
cans because of increased setup time and a greater 
number of cans handled per 1,000 gallons. 

Comparison of Methods. — A comparison of the 
two methods employed for packaging 5-gallon cans 
reveals that the labor costs are identical. Labor 
costs are also identical for the two methods of 
packaging 25-gallon cans. The costs are the same 
because the filling rate, which determines the total 
labor requirement, is the same for both methods, 
and because in each case the productive labor re- 
quirements are less than the elapsed time required 
for filling the cans. Because of lower setup costs 
and fewer cans per 1,000 gallons of ice cream, the 
total labor and equipment cost for packaging 5- 
gallon cans is lower than that for packaging 2\- 
gallon cans, regardless of the method employed. 
The conveyor method is more costly than the 
manual method for packaging both container sizes 
because of the increased equipment cost incurred 
by the use of such items as a platform scale, a roller 
conveyor, and a can-stamping device (table 4). 

Packaging in cartons 

The majority of Indiana plants package ice 
cream in three carton sizes: gallon, half-gallon, and 
pint cartons. The volume of ice cream packaged 
in the various carton sizes at a particular plant 
depends upon the type of market outlet and local 
consumer buying practices. Whereas, some plants 



12 



Table 4. — Packaging ice cream: Labor and equipment requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons in a plan/ manu- 
facturing 150,000 gallons annually, by size of container and method of packaging ' 



Method 



Requirements 



Labor 



Equipment 



Costs 



Labor Equipment 



Total 



5-gallon cans: 

Single-spindle, conveyor method _ 
Single-spindle, manual method... 

2-i—gallon cans: 

Single-spindle, conveyor method. 
Single-spindle, manual method... 

Gallon cartons: 

Two-worker, manual 

Spring table, manual 

Spring table, chute, and basket.. 
Two-worker, chute, and basket.. 

Half-gallon cartons: 

Two-worker, chute, and basket.. 

Three-worker, manual 

Filler, manual 

Filler, chute, and basket 

Pint cartons: 

Filler, manual 

Filler, chute, and basket 

Four-worker, manual 

Three- worker, chute, and basket. 

5-ounce cups: 

Four-worker, manual 

Four-worker, basket 

Filler, manual 

Filler, basket 

3-ounce cups: 

Two-worker, filler, manual 

Two-worker, filler, basket 

Five-worker, manual 

Five-worker, basket 



Man-hours 

5.72 

5.72 

6.84 
6.84 

15.10 
7.96 
7.96 

15.10 

20.49 
30.49 
10.95 
10.95 

13.28 
13.28 
41.30 
31.30 

67.54 
67.54 
19.77 

19.77 

34.93 
34.93 
83.80 
83.80 



Machine- 
hours 

17.42 
12.87 

18.50 
14.72 

17.96 
25.10 
25 . 56 
18.42 

28.09 
27.39 
27.39 
28.09 

28.68 
27 . 89 
28.68 
27.89 

33.80 

34.72 
48.23 
47.80 

51.01 
52.55 
34.29 
35.83 



Dollar* 

10.01 
10.01 

11 .97 
11.97 

26.43 
L3.93 

13.93 
26.43 

35.86 
53.36 
19.16 
19.16 

23.24 
23.24 

72.28 
54.78 

118.20 

118.20 

34.00 

34.60 

61.13 

61 . 13 

146.65 

L46.65 



Dollai 



6.09 

3.29 

9.52 
5.12 

0.85 
1.45 
2.84 
2.2.5 

3.63 

i . i:: 

27.98 
30.16 

53.08 

55.98 

1.85 

4.76 

1 .98 

3.95 
199.56 
201.65 

200.07 

203.58 

2.41 

5.71 



Dollars 



16.10 
13.30 

21.49 
17.09 

27 . 28 
15.38 
16.77 
28.68 

39.49 
54 . 79 
47.14 
49.32 

76.32 
70.22 
74.13 
59.54 

120.18 
122 . 15 
234.16 
236.25 

261.20 
264.71 
14'.). 06 
152.36 



1 For percentage of plant's volume packaged in each size of container, see table 1. 



concentrate primarily on one container size, such 
as gallons, others package mostly pints, and still 
others package large quantities in each of the three 
carton sizes. The present analysis is based on a 
plant with an annual volume of 150,000 gallons, 
and packaging 37,440 gallons in gallon cartons, 
60,372 gallons in half-gallon cartons, and 23,192 
gallons in pint cartons. Labor and equipment re- 
quirements are based on freezing and filling rates 
of 140 gallons per hour for gallon cartons and 100 
gallons per hour for half-gallon and pint cartons. 
Packaging ice cream in cartons involves forming, 
filling, closing, weighing, and bagging cartons. 
There are two basic reasons for bagging containers: 
(1) to reduce the number of unit packages and (2) 
to keep the containers clean and free from finger- 
marks until they reach the point of consumer sale. 
Cartons are bagged in the following quantities: 
Gallon cartons, 2 per bag; half-gallon cartons, 2 
per bag; and pint cartons, 8 per bag. When wire 
baskets are used for storing ice cream, the baskets 
contain 5 bags of gallon cartons or 6 bags of the 
smaller sizes. 



Two types of cartons are used for packaging ice 
cream. One is used primarily for gallon packages ; 
it has a preformed bottom and is formed manually. 
The other type is used for half-gallon and pint 
cartons and is designed for use with a packaging 
machine; it is precreased, but not preformed. If a 
plant does not use packaging machines, these 
cartons are formed manually (fig. 13). 

Nine methods may be used for packaging ice 
cream in cartons. While six of the methods are used 
for packaging only one carton size, three methods 
are employed for packaging two sizes. The methods 
and the carton sizes packaged by each are as 
follows: 

Method Carton size 

Two-worker, manual Gallon 

Spring-table, manual Gallon 

Spring-table, chute, and basket Gallon 

Two-worker, chute, and basket Gallon and half-gallon 

Three-worker, manual Half-gallon 

Filler, manual Half-gallon and pint 

Filler, chute, and basket Half-gallon and pint 

Four-worker, manual Pint 

Three-worker, chute, and basket Pint 





BN-13448-x 

Figure 13. — In the absence of a packaging machine, cartons 
are made up manually. 

Two- Worker, Manual Method. — In packaging 
gallon cartons by this method, one worker stands 
beside the filling head attachment, picks up car- 
tons, holds them under the attachment while they 
are being filled, then sets full cartons on the work- 
table. The second worker picks up, forms, and 
stacks empty cartons; closes and stacks full car- 
tons; opens a bag, puts two cartons in it, and places 
it on the sealing table; closes and seals bags with 
paper tape; stamps the flavor and date on bags; 
weighs every tenth bag; and stacks bags on the 
table. The total labor and equipment requirements 
and costs per 1,000 gallons of ice cream are as 
follows : 

Man-hours Cost 

Labor 15.10 $26.43 

Machine- 

hours 

Equipment: 

Filling head attachment 7 . 14 . 10 

l|-inch I.D. piping 7.14 .34 

Table scale .14 .19 

Tape dispenser .19 .11 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 3.35 .11 

Total 17.96 .85 

Total cost for labor and equipment 27 . 28 

Included in the labor requirements are 1.93 man- 
hours of machine-regulated wait time; the worker 
bagging cartons has to wait for the other worker to 
fill cartons. 

Spring-Table, Manual Method. — One worker 
fills gallon cartons with ice cream by this method. 
The worker sits at a small table, which is placed 
under a filling device. Above the table, and at- 
tached to it, is a small platform on which the car- 
ton is placed for filling (fig. 14). The platform rests 




BN-13447-x 

Figure 14. — A carton is placed on the small platform above 
the table. As the carton is filled with ice cream from a fill- 
ing device, the spring on which the platform rests allows the 
platform to descend slowly to the table. 

on a spring, which allows the platform to descend 
slowly to the table as the carton fills with ice 
cream. When the carton is full, the worker replaces 
the full carton with an empty one. 

While the carton is being filled, the worker forms 
empty cartons, closes full cartons, and bags, seals, 
weighs, and stamps them in the manner described 
for the two-worker, manual method (fig. 15). 

The total labor and equipment requirements 
and costs, per 1,000 gallons of ice cream, for filling 
gallon cartons by this method are as follows: 

Man-hours Cost 
Labor 7.96 S13.93 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment : 

Filling head attachment 7.14 0.10 

12- by 18-inch spring table 7. 14 .50 

lj-inch I.D. piping 7.14 .43 

Table scale .14 .19 

Tape dispenser .19 .11 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 3.35 .12 

Total 25.10 1.45 

Total cost for labor and equipment 15. 38 

Included in the labor requirements are 1.19 man- 
hours of machine-regulated wait time; the worker 
has to wait for the cartons to fill. 

Spring-Table, Chute, and Basket Method. — One 
worker is required for this method. Cartons are 
filled in the manner described for the spring-table, 
manual method. In bagging cartons, however, the 
worker opens a bag, places it on a metal bagging 
chute, closes and tapes the bag, weighs every'tenth 
bag, places the bags in a wire basket, and positions 
a new basket after every fifth bag. Printed sealing 
tape is used to eliminate manual bag stamping. 



14 



The total labor and equipment requirements and 
costs per 1,000 gallons for packaging ice cream in 
gallon cartons are as follows: 

Man-hours Cost 
Labor 7.96 $13.93 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment: 

Filling head attachment 7.14 0.10 

12- by 18-inch spring table 7.14 .50 

1 5-inch I. D. piping 7.14 .43 

Tablescale .14 .1!) 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 2.49 .12 

Tape dispenser .19 .11 

87 wire baskets .58 1.24 

Bagging chute .74 .15 

Total 25.56 2.84 

Total cost for labor and equipment 16.77 

Included in the labor requirements are 1.47 man- 
hours of machine-regulated wait time; the worker 
has to wait for cartons to fill. 

Two-Worker, Chute, and Basket Method.— 
When this method is employed, cartons are 
formed, filled, and closed in the same manner as in 
the two-worker, manual method and are bagged 
in the manner described for the spring-table, chute, 
and basket method. 

The labor and equipment requirements and costs 
per 1,000 gallons of ice cream for packaging gallon 
and half-gallon cartons with this method are as 
follows: 



Item 


Gallon 


cartons 


Half-gallon cartons 




Man- 




Man- 






hours 


Cost 


hours 


Cost 


Labor _. __ 


15.10 


$26.43 


20.49 


$35.86 








Miii-Iii nr- 




Machine- 






li ours 




hours 




Equipment : 










Filling head 










attachment- 


7.14 


0.10 


10.00 


0.13 


H-inch I.D. 










piping 


7.14 


.34 


10.00 


.47 


Table scale 


.14 


.19 


.28 


.38 


30- by 48-inch 










stainless steel 










worktable 


2.49 


.12 


5.02 


.24 


Tape dispenser 


.19 


.11 


.39 


.23 


87 wire baskets.. 


.58 


1.24 








.87 
1.53 


1.86 


Bagging chute 


.74 


.15 


.32 


Total 


18.42 


2.25 


28.09 


3 . 63 


Total cost for 










labor and 










equipment. _ 




28.68 




39.49 










Labor requirements include 2.21 man-hours of 
machine-regulated wait time for worker bagging 



BN-13439-x 

Figure 15. — Worker forms empty cartons while waiting for 
filling device to fill gallon carton mi platform. Platform 
descends slowly to the table as carton (ills. 



gallon cartons and 0.08 man-hours for the worker 
bagging half-gallon cartons; these workers have to 
wait while cartons are being filled. 

Three- Worker, Manual Method. — In packaging 
ice cream in half-gallon cartons with this method, 
one worker picks up, forms, and stacks empty 
cartons and closes full cartons. A second worker 
holds empty cartons beneath the filling head at- 
tached to the freezer pipe. The third worker stands 
at table, opens a bag, inserts two cartons, places 
the bag on the table, closes and seals the bag with 
paper tape, stamps flavor and date on the bag, 
weighs every tenth bag, and stacks the bags on the 
table. 

Labor and equipment requirements per 1,000 
gallons of ice cream for packaging half-gallon 
cartons are as follows: 

Man- Cost 

hours 
Labor.... ... 30.40 $53.36 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment : 

Filling head attachment 1(1.00 0.13 

l|-inch I.D. piping.. 10.00 .17 
30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 
able 0.72 .22 

Tablescale .28 .38 

Tape dispenser . 30 . 23 

Total 27.30 1.43 

Total cost lor labor and equipment. 5-1.70 

Included in the labor requirements are 9.25 man- 
hours cf machine-regulated wait time. This unpro- 
ductive time is due to the workers who fcrm and 
stack cartons having to wait for a worker to fill 
cartons. 

Filler, Manual Method. — One worker packages 
ice cream in either half-gallon or pint cartons by 
this method. Cartons are formed and filled by an 



I.". 



automatic filling machine. One machine is designed 
specifically for half-gallon cartons (fig. 16), and 
another for pint cartons (fig. 17). Basically, the 
two machines are the same. The worker merely 
feeds flattened cartons into the carton track of the 
filler. The machine automatically forms the car- 
tons, folds and locks the bottom flaps, fills the 
carton, folds and locks the top flaps, dates the 
carton, and discharges it. Cartons are bagged by 
the manual bagging method previously described. 
The labor and equipment requirements and costs 
per 1,000 gallons for packaging ice cream with this 
method are as follows : 



Item 


Half-gallon cartons 


Pint cartons 


Labor _ . _ 


Man- 
hours 

10.95 


Cost 
819.16 


Man- 
hours 

13.28 


Cost 
§23.24 






Equipment : 

Half-gallon filler.. 


Machine- 
hoars 

10.00 


26.52 


Machine- 
hours 




Pint filler. 




10.00 


lf-inch I.D. 

piping 

30- by 48-inch 

stainless steel 

worktable 

Tape dispenser 

Table scale 


10.00 .61 

6.72 .24 
.39 .23 
.28 .38 


10.00 

8.01 
0.39 

.28 


.61 

.28 
.23 
.38 


Total 


27.39 I 27.98 


28.68 i 53.08 


Total cost for 
labor and 
equipment _ 




47.14 


76.32 











Labor requirements include 3.13 man-hours of 
machine-regulated wait time for the worker bag- 
ging half -gallon cartons and 1.54 man-hours for 
the worker bagging pint cartons; these workers 
have to wait while the machine fills the cartons. 




BN-13437-x 

Figure 16. — Worker loads flattened half-gallon cartons into 
the filling machine. The machine opens, fills, closes, and 
discharges the cartons into a bagging chute. 




Figure 17 



BN-13441-x 

-A machine for filling pint cartons. 



Filler, Chute, and Basket Method. — One worker 
is required for packaging either half-gallon cartons 
or pint cartons by this method. Filling machines 
described for the previous method are employed, 
and cartons are bagged by the chute and basket 
method. The labor and equipment requirements 
per 1,000 gallons of ice cream for packaging half- 
gallon and pint cartons with this method are as 
follows : 



Item 


Half-gallon cartons 


Pint cartons 


Labor 


Man- 
hours 

10.95 


Cost 
§19.16 


Man- 
hours 

13.28 


Cost 
§23.24 


Equipment: 

Half-gallon filler. _ 


Machine- 
hours 

10.00 


26.52 


Machine- 
hours 




Pint filler 


10.00 

10.00 

4.92 
.39 
.28 

1.43 


51. 5S 


H-inch I.D. 
piping 


10.00 

5.02 
.39 
.28 

1.53 

.87 


.61 

.24 
.23 
.38 
.32 
1.86 


.61 


30- by 48-inch 
stainless steel 
worktable . 

Tape dispenser 

Table scale __ 

Bagging chute 

231 wire baskets 


.24 
.23 
.38 

1.08 


89 wire baskets 


.87 


1.86 








Total 


28.09 


30.16 


27.89 


55.98 


Total cost for 
labor and 
equipment. 




49.32 




79.22 









Labor requirements include 3.96 man-hours of 
machine-regulated wait time for packaging half- 
gallon cartons and 3.76 man-hours for pint cartons 
because worker bagging cartons has to wait for 
cartons to be filled. 

Four-Worker, Manual Method. — Use of this 
method requires four workers, three for forming 
and filling pint cartons and one for bagging. One 



16 



worker forms and stacks empty cartons. A second 
worker holds cartons beneath the filling head while 
they are being filled. The third worker closes and 
stacks full cartons. The fourth worker bags cartons 
in the manner previously described for manual 
bagging. The following are the labor and equip- 
ment requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons of 
ice cream : 

Man- 
hours Cost 
Labor 41.30 $72.28 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment : 

Filling head attachment 10.00 .50 

1-i-inch I. D. piping 10.00 .47 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 8.01 .27 

Tape dispenser .39 .23 

Table scale .28 .38 

Total 28.68 1.85 

Total cost for labor and equipment 74. 13 

The labor requirements include 7.91 man-hours 
of machine-regulated wait time; workers forming, 
closing, and bagging cartons have to wait for the 
worker to fill cartons. 

Three-Worker, Chute, and Basket Method — 
Pint cartons are formed and filled by this method 
in the same manner as that described for the four- 
worker, manual method. Cartons are bagged in 
the same way as in the filler, chute, and basket 
method. Workers who form and close cartons do 
the bagging during their wait time. The labor and 
equipment requirements per 1,000 gallons of ice 
cream are as follows : 

Man- 
hours Cost 
Labor 31.30 $54.78 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment : 

Filling head attachment 10.00 .50 

li-inch I. D. piping 10.00 .47 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 4.02 .24 

Tape dispenser .39 .23 

Table scale .28 .38 

Bagging chute 1.43 1.08 

89 wire baskets .87 1.86 

Total 27.89 4.76 

Total cost for labor and equipment. 59.54 

_ Included in the labor requirements for packaging 
pint cartons is 0.13 man-hour of machine-regulated 
wait time for the worker closing cartons. 

Comparison of Methods. — The lowest cost 
method for packaging in gallons is the spring-table, 
manual method which requires only one worker. 
The spring-table, chute, and basket method, which 
also requires one worker, is slightly higher because 
of the cost of a bagging chute and 87 wire baskets. 



The two other methods each require two workers, 
and the total costs are almost double the total costs 
of the methods which utilize a spring table for 
filling. The two-worker, chute, and basket method, 
the highest cost method, incurs a slightly higher 
cost than the two-worker, manual method because 
of the use of a bagging chute and baskets. The 
spring-table, manual method incurs the least 
amount of machine-regulated wait time among the 
four methods, and the two-worker, chute, and 
basket method incurs the greatest amount. 

The lowest cost method of packaging half-gallon 
cartons is the two-worker, chute, and basket 
method, and this method incurs the least amount 
of machine-regulated wait time. Because of rela- 
tively high labor costs, the three-worker, manual 
method is the most expensive method, and requires 
more machine-regulated wait time than any other 
method. Although the use of a filler reduces the 
crew size to one worker, the equipment costs are 
considerably higher than for either of the other two 
methods. The cost of a bagging chute and 231 wire 
baskets makes the filler, chute, and basket method 
slightly more expensive than the filler, manual 
method. 

The three-worker, chute, and basket method is 
the least expensive method of packaging pint car- 
tons, and it incurs the least amount of machine- 
regulated wait time. Because of higher labor costs, 
the four-worker, manual method incurs a consider- 
ably higher cost than the three-worker, chute, and 
basket method. This method requires the greatest 
amount of machine-regulated wait time. The filler, 
chute, and basket method requires only one 
worker, but the high equipment cost, due primarily 
to the cost of the filler, makes it the most expensive 
method. The filler, manual method, which also 
utilizes one worker, costs slightly less than the 
filler, chute, and basket method (table 4). 

Packaging in cups 

Most plants handle two sizes of cups, 5-ounce 
and 3-ounce; a few package ice cream in 3^-ounce 
cups. Although a wide variety of flavors are pack- 
aged in cups, many plants package only vanilla 
ice cream in cups because of the cost of setting up 
equipment for a variety of flavors. This analysis 
is based on packaging only vanilla flavor in 5-ounce 
and 3-ounce cups. The cups are filled at a rate of 
60 gallons per hour and bagged in units of 2 dozen. 
Included in each bag are 2 dozen prepacked 
wooden spoons. 

Eight methods may be used for packaging ice 
cream in cups : 

Method Cup size 

Four-worker, manual 5 ounce 

Four-worker, basket 5 ounce 

Filler, manual 5 ounce 

Filler, basket 5 ounce 

Two-worker, filler, manual 3 ounce 

Two-worker, filler, basket . 3 ounce 

Five-worker, manual . 3 ounce 

Five-worker, basket 3 ounce 



17 



Four-Worker, Manual Method. — Five-ounce 
cups are packaged by four workers in the following 
manner: One worker holds cups beneath a filling 
spout to fill them, placing a full cup on the table 
while the next cup fills ; a second worker presses a 
lid on each cup, and pushes the cup aside; the third 
worker seats lids firmly in the cups with a circular 
wooden block which he holds in his hand, and 
pushes the cup aside ; and the fourth worker puts 
2 dozen cups and 2 dozen wooden spoons in a bag, 
moves the bag along the table, closes and tapes 
the bag, stamps it, weighs every tenth bag, and 
stacks the bags on the table. 

The labor and equipment requirements and 
costs per 1,000 gallons of ice cream for packaging 
5-ounce cups with this method are as follows: 

Man- 
hours Cost 
Labor 67.54 $118.20 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment : 

l*-inch I. D. piping 16. 6i .79 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 16.43 .55 

Tape dispenser -41 .24 

Table scale .29 .40 

Total 33.80 1.98 

Total cost for labor and equipment 120. 18 

The labor requirements include 4.84 man-hours 
of machine-regulated wait time; three workers 
wait for the worker filling cups. 

Four- Worker, Basket Method. — Cups are filled 
and capped in the same manner as that used for the 
four-worker manual method. To bag cups, a 
worker puts 2 dozen cups and spoons in a bag, 
moves bag along the table, closes the bag and seals 
it with printed tape, weighs every tenth bag, stacks 
bags in baskets (6 bags per basket), and positions 
empty baskets. 

The following are the labor and equipment re- 
quirements per 1,000 gallons of ice cream for pack- 
aging 5-ounce cups with this method : 

Man- Cost 

hours 
Labor 67.54 8118.20 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment : 

1 5-inch I. D. piping 16.6, .79 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 

tal'.le 16.43 .55 

Tape dispenser .41 .24 

Table scale .2!) .40 

12 wire baskets .92 1.9, 

Total 34.72 3.95 

Total cost fur labor and equipment 122.15 

Included in the labor requirements is a total of 
5.27 man-hours of machine-regulated wait time 



for the second, third, and fourth workers, whose 
pace is regulated by the filling rate. 

Filler, Manual Method. — This method is based 
on the use of a cup filling and capping machine 
(fig. 18), which is adaptable for cups ranging in 
capacity from 2| ounces to 1 quart. Cups and lids 
are manually loaded into hoppers (fig. 19). The 
machine automatically fills, caps, and discharges 
the cups. To package in 5-ounce cups one worker 
adds cups and lids to the filler hoppers and bags 
cups in the manner described for manual bagging. 

The labor and equipment requirements per 1,000 
gallons of ice cream for packaging 5-ounce cups 
are as follows : 

Man- Cosl 

hours 
Labor 19.77 S34.60 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment : 

Cup filling and capping machine.. 16 . 67 197 . 41 

H-inch I. D. piping 16.67 1.01 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 14.19 .50 

Tape dispenser .41 .24 

Table scale .29 .40 

Total 48.23 199.56 

Total cost for labor and equipment 234. 16 

The labor requirements include 0.16 man-hour 
of machine-regulated wait time as a result of the 
worker waiting fcr the machine. 

Filler, Basket Method.— The filler, basket 
method may be employed for packaging in 5-ounce 
cups. One worker is required. Cups are filled in the 
same manner as that employed by the filler, 
manual method and are bagged in the manner 
described for the four-worker, basket method. 




BN-13436-x 



Figure 1S.- 



-This filler automatically feeds, fills, caps, and 
discharges cups. 



18 




BN-13434-x 

Figure 19. — Worker adds a box of 50 empty cups to the 
hopper of the cup filler. 



The following are the labor and equipment re- 
quirements per 1,000 gallons of ice cream: 

Man- 
hours Cost 
Labor 19.77 $34.60 

Machine- 
hours 
Equipment: 

Cup filling and capping machine.. 16.67 197.41 
U-inch I.D. piping. . 16.67 1.01 
30- bv 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 12.84 .62 

Tape dispenser .41 .24 

Table scale .29 .40 

12 wire baskets .92 1.97 

Total 47.80 201.65 

Total cost for labor and equipment 236.25 

The labor requirements include 0.59 man-hours 
of machine-regulated wait time because the worker 
is required to wait for the filler. 

Two-Worker, Filler, Manual Method.— To 
package in 3-ounce cups with this method, two 
workers are required. One worker adds cups and 
lids to the hoppers. A cup-filling machine auto- 
matically fills, caps, and discharges the cups. A 
second worker opens bags, places cups and spoons 
in them, and pushes full bags aside. The first 
worker closes, tapes, stamps, weighs, and stacks 
the bags. 

The labor and equipment requirements per 1,000 
gallons of ice cream for packaging in 3-ounce cups 
are as follows : 



Labor. 



Equipment: 

Cup filling and capping machine. _ 
H-inch I.D. piping 



Man- 
hours 
34.93 

Machine- 
hours 

16.67 
16.67 



Cost 
$61.13 



197.41 
1.01 



Equipment ( lontinued 

Machine- 
hours < 'ost 
30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 16.49 .58 

Tape dispenser .(id .40 

Table scale .49 .i;7 

Total 51.01 200.07 

Total cost for labor and equipment 261.20 

The labor requirements include 4.52 man-hours 
of machine-regulated wait time because both 
workers have to wait for the filler. 

Two-Worker, Filler, Basket Method.— Packag- 
ing 3-ounce cups with this method requires two 
workers. Cups are filled in the manner previously 
described for the filler, manual method. The 
method of bagging is the same as that described 
for the four-worker, basket method of bagging]5- 
ounce cups. 

The labor and equipment requirements per 1,000 
gallons of ice cream for packaging in 3-ounce cups 
are as follows: 

Man- 
hours Cost 
Labor 34.93 $61.13 

Machim - 
hours 
Equipment: 

Cup filling and capping machine.. 16.67 197.41 

H-inch I.D. piping 16.67 1.01 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 16.49 .79 

Tape dispenser .69 .40 

Table scale .49 .67 

11 wire baskets 1.54 3.30 

Total 52.55 203.58 

Total cost for labor and equipment $264 . 71 

The labor requirements include 5.24 man-hours 
of machine-regulated wait time because the work- 
ers have to wait for the filler. 

Five- Worker, Manual Method. — The following 
procedure is employed when packaging 3-ounce 
cups by the five-worker, manual method: One 
worker fills cups by holding them beneath a filling 
device and places a full cup on the table while fill- 
ing another; a second worker puts lids on cups and 
pushes the cups aside; two workers seat lids firmly 
in the cups with round wooden blocks, and one of 
these workers utilizes his wait time to close, tape, 
stamp, weigh and stack bags on table; the fifth 
worker adds cups and spoons to a bag, and pushes 
the bag along the table. 

The labor and equipment requirements per 1,000 
gallons for packaging ice cream in 3-ounce cups 
are as follows : 



Labor. 



Mun- 

hours 

83.80 



( 'ost 
$146.65 



10 



Machine- 
hours Cost 
Equipment : 

30- bv 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 16.44 0.55 

Tape dispenser .69 .40 

Table scale .49 .67 

H-inch I. D. piping 16.67 .79 

Total 34.29 2.41 

Total cost for labor and equipment 149. 06 

The labor requirements include 1.01 man-hours 
of machine-regulated wait time because 3 workers 
wait for the worker filling cups. 

Five- Worker, Basket Method. — To package in 
3-ounce cups by this method, cups are filled and 
lids are placed and seated as described for the five- 
worker, manual method. In addition to seating 
lids, one worker closes and tapes bags, weighs 
every tenth bag, stacks bags in baskets, and posi- 
tions empty baskets. The fifth worker opens bags, 
adds cups and spoons and pushes the bag aside. 

The labor and equipment requirements per 1,000 
gallons of ice cream are as follows: 

Man- 
hours Cost 
Labor.. 83.80 $146.65 

Machine- 
hours Cost 
Equipment: 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel work- 
table 16.44 0.55 

Tape dispenser .69 .40 

Table scale .49 .67 

I |-inch I.D. piping 16.67 .79 

II wire baskets 1.54 3.30 

Total 35.83 5.71 

Total cost for labor and equipment 152. 36 

The labor requirements include 1.73 man-hours 
of machine-regulated wait time because three 
workers wait for the worker filling cups. 

Comparison of Methods. — The lowest cost 
method of packaging in 5-ounce cups is the four- 
worker, manual method. The cost of the four- 
worker, basket method is slightly higher because 
of the cost of baskets and because it requires more 
machine-regulated wait time than any other. Al- 
though only one worker is required, the cost of the 
filler, manual method (filling and capping cups by 
machine) is almost double that of the manual 
methods of filling cups. The filler, manual requires 
the least amount of machine-regulated wait time. 
The high cost of the method is due entirely to the 
cost of a filling and capping machine. The filler, 
basket method, the highest cost method, costs 
slightly more than the filler, manual method be- 
cause of the additional cost of wire baskets. 

The lowest cost method of packaging in 3-ounce 
cups is the five-worker, manual method, which 



incurs less machine-regulated wait time than any 
other. The method incurring the greatest cost and 
the greatest amount of machine-regulated wait 
time is the two-worker, filler, basket method. 
Primarily as a result of the high cost of the filling 
and capping machine, the filler methods cost con- 
siderably more than the manual methods of filling 
cups. The use of baskets causes a slight increase 
in packaging costs (table 4). 

Summary of packaging operations 

Ice cream packaging operations are summarized 
on the basis of labor and equipment requirements 
for packaging 1,000 gallons of ice cream in all con- 
tainer sizes according to the previously described 
production ratio. The operations are also summar- 
ized for two combinations of methods. 

Combination A is based on packaging 5- and 
2 ^-gallon cans by the single-spindle, conveyor 
method ; gallon cartons by the two-worker, manual 
method ; half-gallon and pint cartons and 5-ounce 
cups by the filler, manual method; and 3-ounce 
cups by the two-worker, filler, manual method. 

Combination B is based on packaging 5- and 
2i-gallon cans by the single-spindle, manual 
method ; gallon cartons by the spring-table, chute, 
and basket method ; half-gallon cartons by the two- 
worker, chute, and basket method ; pint cartons by 
the three- worker, chute, and basket method; 5- 
ounce cups by the four-worker, chute, and basket 
method; and 3-ounce cups by the five-worker, 
chute, and basket method. 

The labor and equipment cost for packaging is 
$48.32 per 1,000 gallons of ice cream with combi- 
nation A methods and $35.98 with combination B 
methods (table 5). Thus costs are reduced $12.34 
per 1,000 gallons by using combination B methods. 
The primary cause of the cost difference is the 
lower equipment costs with combination B meth- 
ods. These methods do, however, require a greater 
labor cost than combination A methods. Equip- 
ment costs with combination A methods are rela- 
tively high because plants manufacturing a small 
volume find it difficult to utilize high-cost equip- 
ment efficiently. 

Storing ice cream 

During the packaging process ice cream is in a 
semifrozen state. The final process involved in its 
manufacture is reducing the temperature of the 
product until it is solidly frozen. This process, 
known as "hardening," takes place in a low- 
temperature ( — 10° to —30° F.) hardening room. 
Ice cream is stored in the hardening room until it 
is loaded out for delivery. The length of time re- 
quired to harden ice cream depends upon room 
temperature, package size, stacking arrangement, 
room ventilation, type of refrigeration system 
(fig. 20), and other related factors. It is assumed, 
however, that ice cream is hardened overnight at 
most plants. 



20 



Table 5.— Packaging ice cream: Labor and equipment requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons in a plant 
manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually, by combination of packaging methods 1 





Combination 


of methods 


Requirements 


Costs 




Labor I Equipment 


Labor 


Equipment 


Total 


A methods 2 _ . . . 


Man-hours 
12.07 
18.38 


Machine 

hours 
24.41 
25.41 


Dollars 
21.13 
32.17 


Dollar? 
27.19 
3.81 


Dollars 
18.32 
35.98 


B methods 3 _ 





■For percentage of volume packaged in each size of container, see table 1. 

2 Packaging 5- and 2f-gallon cans with the single-spindle, conveyor; gallon cartons with the two-worker, manual; half-g-allon 
and pint cartons and 5-ounce cups with the filler, manual; and 3-ounce cups with the two-worker, filler, manual met hod. 
, 'Packaging 5 " and 2 '-g allon cani? with the single-spindle, manual; gallon cartons with the spring table, chute, and basket; 
half-gallon cartons with the two-worker, chute, and basket; pint cartons with the three-worker, chute, and basket- .bounce 
cups with the four-worker, basket; and 3-ounce cups with the five-worker, basket method. 



Storing is analyzed on the basis of storing ice 
cream packaged in 5- and 2§-gallon cans and in 
cartons and cups. 

Storing cans 

Storing 5- and 2|-gallon cans of ice cream in- 
volves transporting cans from the packaging area 
to the hardening room and stacking them on floor 
pallets. Two methods are employed for storing 
cans — the manual method and the conveyor 
method. Each method requires only one worker. 

Manual Method. — The cans are carried from 
the packaging area to the coldroom port, and 
placed on the port ledge inside the hardening room 
(fig. 21). They are then carried approximately 20 
feet and stacked on floor racks. Because of their 
size and weight, 5-gallon cans are handled individ- 
ually. However, 2|-gallon cans are usually handled 
two at a time. The worker usually places six 5- 
gallon cans or twelve 2^-gallon cans on the ledge 
before going into the hardening room to stack 
them. 




The labor required per 1,000 gallons for storing 
either size of can is 1.84 man-hours, and the labor 
cost is $3.22. No equipment is involved in the 
operation. 

Conveyor Method. — Storing 5- and 2 ^-gallon 
cans by the conveyor method involves transferring 
cans singly from the packaging table to the harden- 
ing room conveyor, walking an average distance 
of 20 feet into the hardening room when the con- 
veyor accumulates twelve 5-gallon cans or twenty- 
four 2|-gallon cans, removing cans singly from the 
conveyor and stacking them on pallets approxi- 
mately 6 feet away, and returning to the packag- 
ing room. The method employed in storing is the 
same for both sizes of can. Labor requirements 
vary, however, since 1,000 gallons of ice cream in 
2^-gallon cans require twice as many cans and 





BN-13446-x 



BN-13435-X 

Figure 20. — A typical blower used for refrigerating hardening 
rooms. 



Figure 21. — Coldroom port between packaging room and 
hardening room has a ledge inside the hardening room. 
Worker in the packaging room places containers of ice 
cream on the ledge. When the ledge is full, he goes into the 
hardening room and stores the ice cream on shelves. 



21 



twice as much handling as 5-gallon cans. The labor 
and equipment requirements for storing cans are 
as follows: 



Item 



5-gallon cans 



2 l-gallon cans 



Labor, . 


Man- 
hours 
0.45 

Machine- 
hours 

5.41 


Cost 
SO. 79 

.65 


Man- 
hours 
0.90 

Machine- 
hours 

5.41 


Cost 
$1.58 


Equipment: 

34-foot belt con- 
veyor 


.65 






Total cost 


1.44 


2 23 









Comparison of Methods. — Storing cans of ice 
cream costs $3.22 per 1,000 gallons for both can 
sizes when the manual method is employed (table 
6). If the conveyor method is employed, the cost 
per 1,000 gallons is $1.44 for 5-gallon cans and 
$2.23 for 2^-gallon cans. Equipment costs for the 
conveyor method are identical for both can sizes. 
Labor requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons 



are twice as high, however, for 2?-gallon cans 
because twice as many cans of this size are handled. 

Storing cartons and cups 

As previously stated, all cartons and cups of ice 
cream are stored in paper bags. The bags are then 
transported into the hardening room and stacked. 
The number of bags required for 1,000 gallons of 
ice cream are as follows: 500 bags for gallon car- 
tons; 1,000 bags for half-gallon cartons; 1,000 bags 
for pint cartons; 1,064 bags for 5-ounce cups; and 
1,786 bags for 3-ounce cups. 

When baskets are used for storing bags, one 
basket contains 5 bags of gallon cartons or 6 bags 
of all other cartons and cups. As a result of the 
variation in quantity per bag, labor and equipment 
costs are different for storing two container sizes 
by the same method. 

Four methods are employed for storing cartons 
and cups. They are the double-stack, conveyor 
and basket, manual, and conveyor methods. Each 
method requires one worker. 

Double-Stack Method. — The double-stacking 
method involves transporting bags of ice cream 
from the packaging table to the hardening room 
conveyor, walking an average distance of 15 feet 



Table 6. — Storing ice cream: Labor and equipment requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons in a plant manufac- 
turing 150,000 gallons annually, by size of container and method of storing * 





Requii 


ements 


Costs 


Method 


Labor 


Equipment 


Labor 


Equipment 


Total 


5-gallon cans: 
Manual 


Man-hours 

1.84 
.45 

1.84 
.90 

1.58 
.59 

1.26 
.75 

3.17 
1.17 
2.52 
1.50 

3.37 
1.25 
2.68 
1.59 

5.66 
2.09 
4.50 
2.67 


Mach in <?- 
hours 


Dollars 

3.22 
.79 

3.22 

1.58 

2.77 
1.03 
2.21 
1.31 

5.55 
2.05 
4.41 
2.62 

5.90 
2.19 
4.69 
2.78 

9.91 
3.66 
7.88 
4.67 


Dollars 


Dollars 

3.22 


Conveyor _ ._ 


5.41 

5.41 

8.16 
7.66 


0.65 


1.44 


2§-gallon cans: 

Manual -_. . 


3.22 


Conveyor _ 


.65 

1.59 
1.89 


2.23 


Gallon cartons: 

Double-stack _ 


4.36 


Basket and conveyor . _ 


2.92 


Manual 


2.21 


Conveyor ._ _._ __ -_ 


7.14 

11.71 
10.87 


.86 

2.43 

2.'.)4 


2.17 


Half-gallon or pint cartons: 

Double-stack _ 


7.9S 


Basket and conveyor 


4.99 


Manual 


4.41 


Conveyor.. . _.. _ - - 


10.00 

18.49 
17.60 


1.21 

3.31 

3.86 


3.83 


5-ounce cups: 

Double-stack. _. 


9.21 


Basket and conveyor. . . . .. . . 


6.05 




4.69 


Conveyor _ _ ... . 


16.67 

19.71 
18.22 


2.01 

4.17 
5.09 


4.79 


3-ounce cups: 

Double-slack ___. __ . __ 


14.08 


Basket and conveyor _ _. __- 


S.75 




7.88 


Conveyor . .. 


16.67 


2.01 


6.68 



\For percentage of volume packaged in each container size, see table 1. 



22 



into the hardening room, transferring bags from 
the conveyor to wire baskets, and stacking the 
baskets 6-high on pallets. The following morning, 
after the ice cream has hardened, the baskets are 
removed from the bags and dumped on the con- 
veyor, empty baskets are stacked, bags are con- 
veyed approximately 7 feet and closely stacked on 
pallets. This method is often employed since ice 
cream hardens more rapidly in baskets than in 
closely packed stacks. The method is also used to 
compensate for space limitations when room size 
prohibits the storing of bags in loose stacks. The 
labor and equipment requirements per 1,000 
gallons for each container size are as follows: 



labor and equipment requirements per 1,000 
gallons for each container size are as follows: 



Item 


Gallon 


cartons 


Half-gallon or 
pint cartons 


Labor . 


Man- 
hours 

1.58 


Cosl 
$2.77 


Man- 
hours 

3.17 


< 'ost 
$5.55 




Equipment : 

34-foot belt con- 
veyor. 


Machine- 
hours 

7.14 
1.02 


0.86 
.73 


Machine- 
hours 

10.00 


1 21 


100 wire baskets.. 




167 wire baskets _ 


1.71 


1 22 










Total 


8.16 


1.59 


11.71 


2.43 


Total cost for 
labor and 
equipment 


1 $4.36 




7.98 




5-ounc 


e cups 


3-ounc 


c cups 


Labor 


Man- 
hours 

3.37 


Cosl 
$5.90 


Man- 
hours 

5.66 


( 'ost 
$9.91 




Equipment : 

34-foot belt con- 
veyor 

178 wire baskets.. 


Machine- 
hours 

16.67 

1.82 


2.01 

1.30 


Machine- 
hours 

16.67 


2.01 


298 wire baskets . 


3.04 


2.16 










Total 


18.49 


3.31 


19.71 


4.17 


Total cost for 
labor and 
equipment 




9.21 




14.08 



Basket and Conveyor Method. — To store ice 
cream by this method, bags of ice cream are placed 
in baskets at the worktable by the bagging worker. 
The baskets are then placed on a belt conveyor, 
which takes them into the hardening room (fig. 
22); they are removed from the conveyor and 
stacked on pallets (fig. 23). Bags remain in the 
baskets until they are ready for loading out. The 



Item 


Gallon cartons 


Half-gallon or 
pint cartons 


Labor _ 


Miin- 

hours 

0.59 


( 'ost 
$1.03 


M iin- 

hours 

1.17 


( 'ost 
$2.05 






Equipment: 

34-foot licit con- 
veyor 
100 wire baskets 


Machine- 
hours 

7.14 

.52 


0.86 

1.03 


Machine- 
hours 

10.110 


1 .21 


167 wire baskets . 


.87 


1.73 










Total 


7.66 


1.89 


10.87 


2.94 


Total cost for 
labor and 

equipment 




2.92 




4.99 










5-ounce-cups 


3-ounce cups 


Labor 


Man- 
hours 
1.25 


( 'list 

$2. L9 


Man- 
hours 
2.09 


< 'ost 

$3 . 66 






Equipment: 

34-foot belt-con- 
veyor 


Machine- 
hours 

16.67 
.93 


2.01 
1.85 


Machine- 
hours 

16. 07 


2.01 


178 wire baskets 




298 wire baskets 


1.55 


3.08 










Total 


17.60 


3.86 


IS. 22 


5.09 


Total cost for 
labor and 
equipment 




6.05 




8.75 




BN-13140-x 



Figure 22. — The conveyor transports bags directly from the 
packaging room into the hardening room. 



23 



Manual Method. — Storing bags by this method 
involves picking up 4 bags and transporting them 
approximately 6 feet to the hardening room ledge, 
walking approximately 20 feet into the hardening 
room after 48 bags have accumulated on the ledge, 
transferring bags approximately 20 feet to a stor- 
age shelf, and returning to the packaging room. 
Since all work is performed manually, no equip- 
ment is required for this method. The labor re- 
quirements per 1,000 gallons of each container size 
are as follows : 

Gallon cartons, 1.26 man-hours, cost $2.21; half- 
gallons or pints, 2.52 man-hours, cost $4.41; 5- 
ounce cups, 2.68 man-hours, cost $4.69; and 3- 
ounce cups, 4.50 man-hours, cost $7.88. 

Conveyor Method. — When the conveyor 
method is employed, bags of cartons and cups are 
transferred directly from the packaging table onto 
the belt conveyor and conveyed into the hardening 
room. The bags are then removed from the con- 
veyor and stacked on shelves. Baskets are not em- 
ployed with this method. The labor and equipment 
requirements per 1,000 gallons of ice cream in each 
container size are as follows: 



Half-gallon or 
Item Gallon cartons pint cartons 


Labor . _ 


Miui- 
hours 
0.75 

Machine- 
hours 

7.14 


Cost 
$1.31 

.86 


Man- 
hours 
1.50 
Machine- 
hours 

10.00 


Cost 
$2 62 


Equipment: 

34-foot belt con- 
veyor 


1.21 


Total cost for 
labor and 
equipment 




2.17 




3.83 










5-ounce cups 


3-ounce cups 


Labor _ ._ .. . . 

Equipment : 

34-foot belt'con- 
veyor . . 


Man- 
hours 
1.59 

Machine- 
hours 

16.67 


Cost 

$2.78 

2.01 


Man- 
hours 
2.67 
Machine- 
hours 

16.67 


Cost 
$4.67 

2.01 


Total cost for 
labor and 
equipment 




4 . 79 




6.68 


1 F 










Comparison of Methods. — The lowest cost 
method for storing gallon, half-gallon, or pint 
cartons and 3-ounce cups is the conveyor method 
(table 6). The next lowest cost method is the 
manual method. The manual method is the only 
method of the four employed for storing these con- 



BN-13438-x 

Figure 23. — A worker stacks baskets in the hardening room. 

tainers in which no equipment is used. Thus, the 
relatively high labor cost incurred with the manual 
method is offset because no equipment cost is in- 
volved. The highest cost method is the double- 
stack. The relatively high cost of this method is 
due to the large amount of labor required. 

The lowest cost method for storing 5-ounce cups 
is the manual method. The manual method has a 
high labor cost but no equipment cost. The con- 
veyor method has a relatively low labor cost, but 
this is offset by the comparatively high equipment 
cost. The double-stack method is the highest cost 
method. 

The most efficient method of storing may not 
necessarily be the lowest cost method because the 
method used in storing is determined by the 
method of packaging. Furthermore, the method 
of packaging also determines the method of load- 
ing out. For example, if cartons and cups are 
placed in baskets in the packaging operation, they 
should be stored and loaded out in baskets. There- 
fore, the most efficient method of storing is the 
method that, when combined with packaging and 
loading out, results in the lowest total cost. 

Summary of storing operations 

Storing operations are summarized on the basis 
of labor and equipment requirements for storing 
1,000 gallons of ice cream in all container sizes in 
the same ratio as assumed for the plant manufac- 
turing 150,000 gallons annually (table 1). The 
operations are compared for two combinations of 
methods. In combination "A" 5- and 2|-gallon 
cans are stored by the conveyor method and all 
other containers by the double-stack method. In 
combination "B" 5- and 2^-gallon containers are 
stored by the conveyor method and all other con- 
tainers by the basket and conveyor method. Both 
combination A and B methods take into considera- 
tion methods of packaging and also loading out. 



24 



The cost for storing 1,000 gallons of ice cream 
packaged in all container sizes is $6.21 with com- 
bination A methods and $4.05 with combination 
B methods (table 7). The reduction in cost with 
combination B methods is in the labor cost. The 



labor cost with combination A methods is $4.23 
and with combination B methods $1.71. The 
lower labor cost is the result of using the basket, 
conveyor method, which eliminates handling bags 
twice with the double-stack method. 



Table 7.— Storing ice cream: Labor and equipment requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons in a plant man- 
ufacturing 150,000 gallons annually, by combinations of methods l 





Combination 


Requirements 




Costs 






Labor 


Equipment 


Labor 


Equipment 


Total 


A methods 2 . .. . 


Ma/i-hours 
2.42 
0.98 


Machine- 
hours 
10.01 
9.38 


Dollars 
4.23 
1.71 


Dollars 
1.98 
2.34 


Dollars 


B methods 3 _ 


6.21 




4.05 



1 For percentage of volume packaged in each container size, see table 1. 
3 storing 5- and ^-gallon cans by the conveyor method, and all other containers bv the double-stack method, 
storing 5- and 2- 2 -gallon cans by the conveyor method, and all other containers by the basket and conveyor method 



Loading out ice cream 

Ice cream is loaded directly from the hardening 
room into refrigerated trucks for shipment to 
customers. The trucks may be either conventional 
4-wheel dairy trucks for local small-order custom- 
ers, or semitrailer trucks for large-order or out-of- 
town customers. Since the trucks are refrigerated 
they can be loaded during the day or night, but 
the loading usually takes place during the normal 
plant workday. Work crews for loading out vary, 
but as a rule the truck driver arranges and stacks 
ice cream in the truck. Work performed by the 
truck driver is not included in plant labor require- 
ments for loading out ice cream. 

The operation is analyzed on the basis of loading 
out ice cream packaged in 5- and 2^ -gallon cans 
and in cartons and cups. 

Loading out cans 

Loading out cans involves transporting cans 
from the storage location in the hardening room to 
the load-out port. The load-out port, which also 
serves as a conveyor port, is comparable to the port 
connecting the packaging room and the hardening 
room. In this case, a small stacking ledge is situ- 
ated outside the port. Two methods are commonly 
employed for loading out cans— the manual 
method and the conveyor method. In each case, 
only one worker is involved. 

Manual Method. — Worker carries one 5-gallon 
can or two 2 ^-gallon cans at a time from the stor- 
age site to the load-out port, an average of 15 feet, 
and stacks them for the truck loader. No equip- 
ment is involved in the operation. Labor required 
for loading out 1,000 gallons in either can size 
equals 0.57 man-hour, and the labor cost is $1. 

Conveyor Method. — When the conveyor 
method is used, cans are carried from the stacks 



to the conveyor and are conveyed to the load-out 
port. Cans of both sizes are placed individually on 
the conveyor. The labor requirements and cost per 
1,000 gallons of ice cream for loading out cans by 
the conveyor method are as follows : 

Five-gallon cans, 0.20 man-hour, the cost $0.35; 
2^-gallon cans, 0.37 man-hours, the cost $0.65. 
The equipment requirements based on the use of 
a 34-foot belt conveyor is 0.20 machine-hour for 
5-gallon cans and 0.37 machine-hour for 2^-gallon 
cans. The equipment cost is less than one cent for 
both container sizes. 

Comparison of Methods.— The cost of loading 
out 1,000 gallons of ice cream in either size of can 
by the manual method is $1. The cost for loading 
out by the conveyor method is $0.35 for 5-gallon 
cans and $0.65 for 2|-gallon cans. Since equipment 
cost is less than one cent, it is not included. The 
variation in labor costs for the two can sizes results 
from the fact that both 5- and 2^-gallon cans are 
handled individually (table 8). 

Loading out cartons and cups 

Cartons and cups are loaded out in bags. The 
bags may or may not be in baskets. The bags are 
moved to the load-out port manually or by con- 
veyor. Since the truck driver loads bags at the rate 
of 0.75 man-hour per 1,000 gallons of ice cream, 
the load-out worker cannot maintain a faster pace. 
Three methods are employed for loading out car- 
tons and cups — manual, basket and conveyor, and 
conveyor. In each case, one worker is required. 

Basket and Conveyor Method.— This method 
involves removing baskets from the stacks in the 
hardening room and transporting them an average 
of 6 feet to the conveyor, emptying bags of ice 
cream from the baskets onto the conveyor, and 



25 



Table 8. — Loading out ice cream: Labor and equipment requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons in a plant 
manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually, by size of container and method l 





Requirements 


Costs 


Method 


Labor 


Equipment 


Labor 


Equipment 


Total 


•5-gallon cans: 


Man-hours 

0.57 
.20 

.57 
.37 

.44 
.56 
.51 

.87 
1.10 
1.01 

.93 
1.17 

1.06 

1.56 
1.96 

1.78 


Machine- 
hours 


Dollars 

1.00 
.35 

1.00 
.65 

.77 
.98 
.89 

1.52 

1.93 

1.77 

1.63 
2.05 
1.86 

2.73 
3.43 
3.12 


Dollars 


Dollars 

1.00 


Conveyor - 


0.20 


( 2 ) 


.35 


2|-gallon cans: 


1.00 


Conveyor - - - - 


.37 
1.12 


( 2 ) 
0.46 


.65 


Gallon cartons: 

Basket and conveyor - - - - - - 


1.23 




.98 




.87 
1.36 


( 2 ) 
.76 


.89 


Half-gallon or pint cartons: 


2.28 




1.93 




.87 
1.40 


( 2 ) 
.81 


1.77 


5-ounce cups : 

Basket and conveyor - - 


2.44 




2.05 




.87 
1.84 


( 2 ) 
1.35 


1.86 


3-ounce cups: 

Basket and conveyor 


4.08 




3.43 




.87 


( 2 ) 


3.12 







1 For percentage of volume packaged in each container size, see table 1. 

2 Cost is less than one cent per 1,000 gallons. 



stacking and moving empty baskets. Although the 
operation requires only 0.55 man-hour per 1,000 
gallons, the load-out worker must wait 0.20 man- 



hour to allow the driver sufficient time for loading 
the truck. Labor and equipment requirements per 
1,000 gallons are as follows: 



Item 



Labor 



Equipment : 

34-foot belt con- 
veyor 

100 wire baskets... 
167 wire baskets.-. 

Total 



Total cost for 
labor and 
equipment.. 



Gallon cartons 



Half-gallon or 
pint cartons 



Man- 
hours 
0.44 



Cost 

so. 77 



Man- 
hours 
0.87 



Machine- 
hours 



0.75 
.37 



I 1 ) 
0.46 



Machine- 
hours 



0.75 
""61 



1.12 



.46 



1.36 



1.23 



Cost 

$1.52 



"~6~76 



2.28 



Labor. 



Item 



Equipment: 

34-foot belt con- 
veyor 

178 wire baskets. 
298 wire baskets 



Total- 



Total cost for 
labor and 
equipment.. 



Equipment cost is less than SO. 01 per 1,000 gallons. 



5-ounce cups 



Man- | 
hours Cost 
0.93 I SI. 63 



Machine- 
hours 



. lO 

.65 



C 1 ) 



.81 



1.40 



.81 



2.44 



3-ounce cups 



Man- 
hours 
1.56 



Machine- 
hours 



75 



1.09 



1.84 



Cost 
S2.73 



« 



1.35 



1.35 



4.08 



Manual Method. — Loading out bags by the 
manual method involves transporting bags (4 at 
a time) an average distance of 15 feet from the 
stacking shelf to the load-out ledge, stacking bags 



on the ledge, and returning to the storage shelf. 
No equipment is required when this method is 
employed. Labor requirements and cost per 1,000 
gallons of ice cream are as follows : 



26 



Gallon cartons, 0.56 man-hour, $0.98; half-gal- 
lon or pint cartons, 1.10 man-hours, $1.93; 5-ounce 
cups, 1.17 man-hours, $2.05; and 3-ounce cups, 
1.96 man-hours, $3.43. 

Conveyor Method.— Loading out bags by the 
conveyor method involves picking up 4 bags from 
stack, carrying bags an average of 4 feet to the out- 
going conveyor, placing bags on the conveyor, and 
returning to the stack. Labor requirements and 
cost per 1,000 gallons of ice cream for each con- 
tainer size are as follows: 

Gallon cartons, 0.51 man-hour, $0.89; half- 
gallon or pint cartons, 1.01 man-hours, $1.77; 5- 
ounce cups, 1.06 man-hours, $1.86; and 3-ounce 
cups, 1.78 man-hours, $3.12. The equipment re- 
quirements based on the use of a 34-foot belt con- 
veyor for 0.87 machine-hour for each container 
size is less than one cent. 

Comparison of Methods. — The lowest cost 
method of loading out gallon, half-gallon, and pint 
cartons and 5- and 3-ounce cups is the conveyor 
method (table 8). The highest cost method of the 
three used is the basket and conveyor method. 
Although the labor cost for this method is the low- 
est, it has a relatively high equipment cost. 

Summary of loading out operations 

Loading out operations are summarized on the 
basis of labor and equipment requirements for 
loading out 1,000 gallons of ice cream according 
to the ratio of container sizes previously described. 
The operations are compared for two combinations 
of methods. Combination A methods involve load- 
ing out all containers by the conveyor method, 
whereas combination B methods involve loading 
out by the conveyor and the basket and conveyor 
methods. The labor cost is less for combination B 
methods due to the use of baskets. However, the 
total costs are $1.76 for combination B methods 
and $1.37 for combination A methods (table 9). 
The difference in cost is due to relatively high 
equipment cost. 




BN-13443-x 



Figure 24.— Machine parts are scrubbed and placed on a 
work) able lor the hot-water rinse. 

Cleaning manufacturing equipment 

All equipment that comes into contact with ice 
cream or ice cream ingredients is cleaned at the end 
of each workday. Large plants often employ a crew 
to clean the equipment at night. At small or 
medium-sized plants, however, the production 
workers clean all equipment in the afternoon im- 
mediately after completing the manufacturing 
operations. Cleaning usually involves dismantling, 
washing, rinsing, and steaming the equipment and 
parts (figs. 24 and 25). Certain items, such as freez- 
ers, vats, pumps, and some of the piping, are usu- 
ally reassembled immediately after being cleaned. 
Other items, such as the filling machine, are usually 
reassembled the following day. 

Other than brushes and buckets, which are not 
considered in this analysis, only two items of clean- 
ing equipment are required for cleaning purposes. 
A centrifugal pump, which is also used as the 
pasteurizer pump, is employed for circulating 
cleaning solutions through the H.T.S.T. pasteur- 
izer and the homogenizer. A vat approximately 11 



Table 9.— Loading out ice cream: Labor and equipment requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons in a plant 
manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually, In/ combination of methods 1 



Combination of methods 


Requirements 


Costs 


Labor 


Equipment 


Labor 


Equipment 


Total 


A methods 2 . . . 


Man-hours 

0.80 

.09 


Machine- 
hows 
0.79 

l .I.") 


Dollars 
I .37 

1. l'i 


Dollars 

(<) 
0.57 


Dollars 
1.37 
1.76 


B methods 3 . 





1 For percentage of volume packaged in each container size, see table 1 . 
- Loading out all containers by the conveyor method. 
3 Loading out 5- and 2i-gallon cans by the conveyor method, and all other containers by the basket and conveyor method. 
Cost is less than one cent. J 



27 




BN-13445-x 

Figure 25. — A worker scrubs the inside of a vat with a long- 
handled brush. 




BN-13442-x 

Figuee 26. — Piping is rinsed in the vat, scrubbed by a re- 
volving brush (inside the splash shield), placed on the 
storage racks, and rinsed w : th a hose. 



feet long, 2 feet wide, and 1 foot deep (fig. 26) is 
used for washing piping. Horizontally along the 
top of the vat is a revolving brush attached to a 
10- to 12-foot pipe through which cleaning solu- 
tions are pumped. A storage rack for clean pipe is 
attached to the back of the vat. No equipment is 
required for cleaning other items of equipment. 

At most plants the first step involves cleaning 
the pipe, because removing all pipe from the manu- 
facturing area facilitates the cleaning of other 
items. The clean piping is then stored on the rack 
until all other items have been cleaned, or until the 
following morning. 

The method used and the labor and equipment 
required for cleaning a particular item of equip- 
ment are essentially the same in all plants studied. 
However, the requirements for cleaning different 
items of equipment vary widely. For the purposes 
of this analysis, the plant equipment is divided 
into two types: 

Type 1 equipment is used with the combination 
A methods: Receiving mix ingredient by the bulk 
handtruck method ; preparing mix by the bulk and 
H.T.S.T. method; freezing with the three-tube 
freezer; and packaging 5- and 2 ^-gallon cans by 
single-spindle, conveyor method, gallon cartons by 
the two-worker, manual method, half-gallon and 
pint cartons and 5-ounce cups by filler, manual 
method, and 3-ounce cups by the two- worker filler 
manual method. 

Type 2 equipment is used with the combination 
B methods : Receiving ingredients by the can and 
handtruck method ; preparing mix by the can and 
batch method; freezing by single-tube freezer; and 
packaging 5- and 2|-gallon cans by the single- 
spindle, manual method, gallon cartons by the 
spring-table, chute, and basket method, half- 
gallon cartons by the two-worker, chute, and 
basket method, pint cartons by the three-worker, 



chute, and basket method, 5-ounce cups by the 
four-worker, basket method, and 3-ounce cups by 
the five- worker, basket method. 

Cleaning type 1 equipment 

The items of type 1 equipment and the labor 
requirements for cleaning each item are shown in 
table 10. The homogenizer, the pasteurizer, and 
the pasteurizing pump are cleaned by circulating 

Table 10. — Cleaning manufacturing equipment: 
Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons of ice cream 
for cleaning type 1 equipment in a plant manu- 
facturing 150,000 gallons annually x 



Equipment 



600-gallon cream tank 

600-gallon skim milk tank 

Six 6,000-lb.-per-hr. centrifugal pumps. 

50-gallon weigh tank 

300-gallon mix tank 

10,000-lb.-per-hr. centrifugal pump 

5,400-lb.-per-hr. H.T.S.T. pasteurizer.. 

600-gallon-per-hr . homogenizer 

600-gallon mix storage vat 

300-gallon mix storage vat 

375-gallon flavor tank 

300-gallon-per-hr. 3-tube freezer 

Fruit feeder 

Half-gallon filling machine 

Pint filling machine 

Cup filling machine 

Bulk filler 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel worktable 
Piping 

Total... 



Labor 
requirements 



Man- 



hours 
0.87 
.87 
.24 
.33 
.48 
.10 
.28 
.10 
.87 
.44 
.41 
2.15 
.53 
.57 
.53 
.87 
.25 
.01 
2.85 



12.75 



1 Based on a plant manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually 
and performing operations with combination A methods. 



28 



cleaning solution through them. All other items 
of equipment are cleaned manually. 

The labor cost for cleaning type 1 equipment is 
$22.32. The cost for using a circulatory cleaning 
pump for 2.09 machine-hours and a pipe-washing 
vat for 0.85 machine-hour, a total of 2.94 machine- 
hours, is $0.80. The total labor and equipment cost 
per 1,000 gallons of ice cream for cleaning type 1 
equipment is $23.12. 

Cleaning type 2 equipment 

The items of type 2 equipment and the labor 
requirements for cleaning each item are shown in 
table 11. All items of equipment are cleaned man- 
ually. 

Table 11. — Cleaning manufacturing equipment: 
Labor requirements -per 1,000 gallons of ice cream 
for cleaning type 2 equipment in a plant manu- 
facturing 150,000 gallons annually ' 



Equipment 



50-gallon weigh tank 

Three 6,000-lb.-per-hr. centrifugal pumps . 

300-gallon pasteurizing vat 

600-gallon-per-hr. homogenizer 

5,400-lb.-per-hr. plate cooler 

600-gallon mix storage vat 

300-gallon mix storage vat 

Two 50-gallon flavor tanks 

Two 150-gallon-per-hr. single-tube freezers 

Fruit feeder 

Bulk filler 

Spring filling table 

Two bagging chutes 

30- by 48-inch stainless steel worktable — 
Piping 

Total 



Labor 
requirements 



Man- 



hours 

0.33 

.12 

.73 

1.13 

3.29 

.87 

.44 

.32 

3.68 

.53 

.25 

.01 

.04 

.01 

1.39 



13.14 



1 Based on a plant manufacturing 150,000 gallons_ of ice 
cream annually and performing operations with combination 
B methods. 

The labor cost for cleaning type 2 equipment is 
$23.01. The cost for using a pipe-washing vat for 
0.44 machine-hour is $0.53. The total labor and 



equipment cost per 1,000 gallons of ice cream for 
cleaning type 2 equipment is $23.54. 

Summary of requirements for cleaning equipment 

The total cost per 1,000 gallons of ice cream for 
cleaning type 1 ice cream manufacturing equip- 
ment is $23.12 and for cleaning type 2 equipment 
$23.54. Labor constitutes about 97 percent of the 
total cost for cleaning both types of equipment. 
The cost differs primarily because several items of 
type 1 equipment are cleaned by circulatory meth- 
ods, whereas all items of type 2 equipment are 
cleaned manually. 

Summary of requirements for ice cream 
plant operations 

The total cost per 1,000 gallons of ice cream in 
a plant manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually 
is $149.22 with combination A methods and 
$125.53 with combination B methods (table 12). 
The difference amounts to $23.69 per 1,000 gallons. 
On an annual basis the difference would amount 
to approximately $3,600. 

All of the reduction in cost with combination B 
methods is in the equipment cost; labor cost is 
about 19 percent higher for combination B meth- 
ods. The equipment cost is $90.66 with combina- 
tion A methods and $55.65 with combination B 
methods. 

Equipment costs with combination B methods 
are lower for plants of this size because manual 
methods are more economical than methods requir- 
ing relatively high-cost labor-saving equipment. 
The increased labor cost incurred by the manual 
methods used with combination B is more than 
offset by the reduction in equipment costs. This 
relationship results in overall economy for combi- 
nation B methods for plants of this size. 

Combination B methods result in savings in all 
operating cycles except loading out ice cream and 
cleaning equipment. The greatest saving, $12.34 
is in the packaging operations, and is due to the 
fact that most containers are filled manually rather 
than by high-cost filling machines. Other signifi- 
cant savings, $5.54 for receiving ingredients and 
$3.69 for preparing mix, are the result of reduced 
equipment costs. 



LAYOUT FOR AN ICE CREAM PLANT 



The primary purpose in plant designing is to pro- 
vide facilities for performing all plant operations 
in the most efficient manner. In designing an ice 
cream plant, therefore, at least five factors should 
be considered: (1) Proposed distribution of con- 
tainer sizes and of flavors, (2) estimated produc- 
tion, (3) paths of flow, (4) space requirements, and 
(5) future expansion. 

Both the distribution of container sizes and 
flavors and the sales forecasts must be determined 



by management before the design of a plant can 
be initiated. On the basis of annual production 
estimates, equipment types and sizes and space 
requirements can be determined. 

Paths of flow are of primary importance in the 
design of an efficient plant. Flow patterns must be 
determined for ingredients, products, and contain- 
ers. Thus, equipment should be arranged to pro- 
vide the most direct flow of ingredients and prod- 
ucts. At the same time, the various work areas 



29 



Table12. — Summary of labor and equipment requirements and costs per 1,000 gallons of ice cream in a plant 
manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually, by combination of methods and major operating cycle l 





Combination A methods 2 


Combination B methods 3 


Operating cycle 


Requirements 


Costs 


Requirements 


Costs 




Labor 


Equip- 
ment 


Labor 


Equip- 
ment 


Total 


Labor 


Equip- 
ment 


Labor 


Equip- 
ment 


Total 


Receiving mix ingredients 

Preparing mix 


Man- 
hours 
0.53 
2.29 
2.61 
12.07 
2.42 
.80 
12.75 


Machine- 
hours 
117.80 
127.46 
24.88 
24.41 
10.01 
.79 
2.94 


Dollars 
0.93 
4.01 
4.57 

21.13 
4.23 
1.37 

22.32 


Dollars 

5.09 

29.78 

25.82 

27.19 

1.98 

( 4 ) 

.80 


Dollars 

6.02 

33.79 

30.39 

48.32 

6.21 

1.37 

23.12 


Man- 
hours 
0.25 
4.04 
2.45 
18.38 
.98 
.69 
13.14 


Machine- 
hours 
0.25 
126.30 
23.12 
25.41 
9.38 
1.15 
.44 


Dollars 
0.44 
7.07 
4.29 

32.17 
1.71 
1.19 

23.01 


Dollars 

0.04 

23.03 

25.33 

3.81 

2.34 

.57 

.53 


Dollars 
0.48 
30.10 


Freezing ice cream. 


29.62 


Packaging ice cream _ 


35.98 


Storing ice cream . . . _ 


4.05 


Loading out ice cream . . _ 
Cleaning equipment.. . . . 


1.76 
23.54 






Total 


33.47 


308.29 


58.56 


90.66 


149.22 


39.93 


186.05 


69.88 


55.65 


125.53 







1 For percentage of volume packaged in each container size, see table. 1 

2 Receiving mix ingredients by the bulk handtruck method; preparing mix by the bulk and H.T.S.T. method; freezing ice 
cream by the 3-tube freezer method; packaging 5- and 2J-gallon cans by the single-spindle, conveyor method, gallon cartons by the 
two-worker, manual method, half-gallon and pint cartons and 5-ounce cups by the filler, manual method, and 3-ounce cups by 
the two- worker, filler, manual method; storing cans by the conveyor method and cartons and cups by the double-stack method; 
loading out all containers by the conveyor method and cleaning all equipment utilized by these methods. 

3 Receiving mix ingredients by the can and handtruck method; preparing mix by the can and batch method; freezing ice 
cream by the single-tube freezer method; packaging 5- and 2|-gallon cans by the single-spindle manual method, gallon cartons 
by the spring table, chute, and basket method, half-gallon cartons by the two-worker chute and basket method, pint cartons by 
the three-worker chute and basket method, 5-ounce cups by the four-worker basket method, and 3-ounce cups by the five-worker 
basket method; storing cans by the conveyor method and cartons and cups by the basket and conveyor method; loading out 
cans by the conveyor method and cartons and cups by the basket and conveyor method, and cleaning all equipment utilized 
by these methods. 

4 Cost is less than one cent per 1,000 gallons. 



should be located to provide a direct flow of 
products and supplies through the plant and to 
reduce the distance traveled by workers. 

Space requirements for operational areas should 
be based on the types and sizes of equipment, plus 
the additional space required for working aisles 
and for equipment cleaning. All equipment requir- 
ing frequent cleaning should be located at least 3 
feet from walls and other items of equipment if 
adequate space is to be provided for cleanup work. 
Storage room dimensions should be based on the 
size and quantity of stored materials, the average 
turnover of materials, and the necessary aisle 
space. 

When the plant is being designed, consideration 
should be given to future expansion. As a rule, the 
rooms primarily affected by an increase in volume 
are the hardening room, the dry storage room, and 
the machinery room. These rooms should adjoin 
one another along an outside wall, so that expan- 
sion will require the removal of only one outside 
wall. 

Operators of ice cream plants planning the con- 
struction of new plants or the revision of existing 
plants should consult engineers and health depart- 
ment officials for assistance in preparing actual 
plant designs. 



Proposed layout for a plant 

To illustrate the major principles of layout for 
an ice cream plant, a proposed layout for a 150,000 
gallon a year plant is shown in figure 27. 

The plant is designed for receiving fluid ingredi- 
ents in cans and dry ingredients in 100-pound 
sacks ; preparing mix by the can and batch method ; 
freezing ice cream with the single-tube freezer 
method; packaging cans with the single-spindle, 
manual method, gallon cartons with the spring- 
table, chute, and basket method, half-gallon and 
pint cartons with the chute and basket method, 
and cups with the basket method ; storing cans by 
the conveyor method, cartons and cups by the 
basket and conveyor method ; and loading out cans 
by the conveyor method and cartons and cups by 
the basket and conveyor method. 

The proposed plant measures 71 feet 3 inches by 
70 feet, and comprises 4,987.5 square feet. Of this 
area, the main office accounts for 800 square feet, 
and the plant proper comprises 4,187.5 square feet. 
The major components of the plant are as follows : 
A can storage cooler, a mix area, a freezing and 
packaging area, a hardening room, and a dry 
storage room. Auxiliary areas include a machinery 
room, the production manager's office, the labora- 
tory, the locker room, and the main office. 



30 




KEY 

. WEIGH TANK ON SCALE (50 GAL CAP.) 
: PASTEURIZING VAT (300 GAL. CAP) 
i HOMOGENIZER (600 GAL PER HR ) 

PLATE COOLER (5400 LB PER HR ) 

MIX STORAGE VAT (600 GAL. CAP) 

MIX STORAGE VAT (300 GAL CAP ) 
' FLAVOR TANK (50 GAL CAP ) 
I FREEZER 1150 GAL PER HR ) 

FRUIT FEEDER (PORTABLE) 

SPRING TABLE (PORTABLE) 

WORK TABLE (PORTABLE) 

CAN FORMER 



FLO W LEGEND 

- MIX INGREDIENTS 

- EMPTY CONTAINERS 

- ICE CREAM 



Figure 27. — Proposed layout for an ice cream plant manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually. Arrows show the flow of mix 

ingredients, empty containers, and ice cream through the plant. 



Can storage cooler 

The can storage cooler is used for storing 10- 
gallon cans of cream and skim milk, and empty 
cans. The room should be impervious to moisture 
and should be insulated to maintain a temperature 
of approximately 35° F. The size of a can storage 
cooler for an ice cream plant should be based on 

(1) volume of skim milk and cream to be stored, 

(2) pattern of receipts, (3) length of storage period, 
(4) method of stacking cans, and (5) amount of 
aisle space needed. 

The volume of skim milk and cream stored 
should be directly related to the amount of ice 
cream produced. Production information for Indi- 
ana shows that a plant manufacturing 150,000 
gallons annually produces 24 percent of its total 
production during July and August. The average 
weekly production during this period is 4,157 gal- 
lons. Approximately 610 gallons of cream and 720 
gallons of skim milk would be needed for this pro- 



duction. Based on receiving cream and skim milk 
twice a week and receiving 40 percent of the weekly 
supply at one time and 60 percent at another, 
storage would be needed for 80 full cans and 53 
empty cans. If full cans are stored side by side and 
1.2 square feet of space is allowed per can, the 
storage requirements for full cans would amount 
to 96 square feet. 

The storage space requirements for empty cans 
stacked two high is about 32 square feet. The total 
space needed for storing cans of cream and skim 
milk and empty cans is 128 square feet. 

An aisle 4 feet wide should extend through the 
center of the room to allow space for a 2-wheel 
handtruck to be used for transporting cans into 
and out of the room. The suggested aisle contains 
about 106 square feet. Thus, the total space re- 
quirements amount to 234 square feet. 

A room 26 feet 5 inches long and 10 feet wide is 
suggested for the can storage cooler. The room 



31 



contains about 264 square feet of space. Thirty 
square feet of the space, above the requirements 
for cans and an aisle, could be used at the receiving 
door for maneuvering the 4-wheel handtruck or to 
permit an aisle between the cans of cream and the 
cans of skim milk. 

Full cans should be stacked side by side and 
empty cans two high. All cans should be placed on 
floor storage racks to allow periodic cleaning of the 
room. Floors should be slightly sloped toward 
drains, so that the room remains free of moisture. 
Room should be refrigerated by blower units. 

Mix area 

The mix area houses all equipment for assem- 
bling, processing, and storing ice cream mix. To 
insure a direct flow of mix ingredients (fig. 27), the 
mix area is situated between the can storage cooler 
and the freezing and packaging area. 

Layout of Area. — The mix area is 24 feet 9 
inches by 30 feet. Since outside traffic is discour- 
aged in the mix area, there is no direct entrance 
from outside the building. Visitors, however, may 
enter the plant through the main office and past 
the production manager's office. Walls should be 
of a light color, and should be easily cleaned and 
impervious to moisture. Floors should be capable 
of supporting the weight of all equipment. They 
should be surfaced with a material that is impervi- 
ous to moisture and cleaning acids, and resistant 
to wear or to chipping. Lighting, both natural and 
artificial, should provide a minimum intensity of 
10 foot-candles throughout the room. The room 
should be ventilated to maintain a dust-free atmos- 
phere and to eliminate moisture on the ceiling. 
Floors should be adequately sloped toward drains, 
and all drains should be placed to keep aisles and 
working areas free of puddles. 

Arrangement of Equipment. — Equipment in the 
mix area is arranged to provide a straight flow of 
ingredients from the can storage cooler to the ice 
cream freezers. A weigh tank supported on a scale 
is located 7 feet from the cooler to allow space for 
maneuvering a 4-wheel handtruck. Cans are 
dumped into the weigh tank from the side nearest 
the can cooler. They are then rinsed, replaced on 
the handtruck, and returned to the cooler. All 
other items of equipment are located no less than 

3 feet apart. Both pipe footage and walking dis- 
tance between machines should be held to a mini- 
mum, but sufficient space should be allowed be- 
tween items of equipment to permit adequate 
cleaning. All items of equipment should be at least 

4 feet from the outer wall, allowing the portable 
wash vat to be moved along the entire length of 
the wall and providing working space at the wash 
vat. 

Freezing and packaging area 

The freezing and packaging area houses freezers, 
flavor tanks, a fruit feeder and all packaging equip- 



ment. Since there is a relatively continuous flow of 
mix from the mix area to the freezing and packag- 
ing area, these work areas are located in the same 
room. 

Layout of Area. — The area is 24 feet 9 inches by 
24 feet in size. The requirements for lighting, floor 
construction, and wall surface should be the same 
as those recommended for the mix area. 

Arrangement of Equipment. — Flavor tanks and 
freezers are situated next to the storage vats for 
the mix to minimize the length of piping required. 
The flavor tanks are located 4 feet from the wall 
and 2 feet from the freezers. These are the only 
items of stationary equipment in the area. The 
fruit feeder, the worktable, and the spring table 
are all portable and may be stored against the side 
wall when not in use. Space is provided between 
the freezers and the conveyor, so that equipment 
can be rolled into position as needed. A can former 
is located along the wall of the dry storage room to 
allow one worker to form and fill cans with a min- 
imum of travel. 

Hardening room 

The hardening room is used for hardening semi- 
frozen ice cream, and for storing ice cream and 
certain perishable ingredients. The size of a hard- 
ening room should be based on (1) the volume of 
ice cream stored, (2) the estimated length of the 
storage period, (3) the number of flavors and the 
container sizes in which ice cream is packaged, (4) 
the amount of ice cream stored per bag and the 
number of bags per basket, (5) the amount of space 
required for storing perishable ingredients, (6) the 
amount of aisle space needed, and (7) the method 
of stacking baskets. 

To insure adequate storage space the volume to 
be stored should be based on the average weekly 
production during peak production periods. As 
previously stated, the peak production for a plant 
manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually would be 
4,157 gallons a week. The estimated length of 
storage would be 1 week. The plant would produce 
five flavors and package ice cream in seven con- 
tainer sizes. In storing ice cream, baskets can be 
stacked six high, 5-gallon cans three high, and 
2 ^-gallon cans five high. A stack of baskets oc- 
cupies 1.67 square feet of floor space and a stack 
of cans 0.6 square feet. 

Storing 678 gallons of ice cream packed in 5- 
and 23^-gallon cans and 3,479 gallons in baskets 
would require 189 square feet of space. It is sug- 
gested that about 20 square feet of space be pro- 
vided for storing novelties purchased from out- 
side sources. Thus, total space needed for storing 
ice cream manufactured by the plant and novel- 
ties purchased from outside sources is 209 square 
feet. Conveyor and aisle space should be provided, 
and a vestibule for storing perishable items such 
as fruits, nuts, candy, and syrups is also suggested. 



32 



Layout of Room. — The hardening room should 
be adjacent to the freezing and packaging area so 
that packages may be moved only a short distance 
to storage. The suggested hardening room meas- 
ures 26 feet by 17 feet and has 425 square feet 
of usable space. It contains a vestibule measuring 
4 feet by 17 feet, which should be insulated to 
maintain a temperature of 35° F. The vestibule 
would be used for storing such perishable items 
as fruits, nuts, candy, and syrups, and for re- 
ducing the effect of temperature changes when 
the door to the hardening room is opened. The 
vestibule should be adjacent to the freezing and 
packaging area. 

The hardening and storing area measures 21 feet 
by 17 feet. Two storage spaces 5 feet in width 
extend along the full-length of the area and are 
separated by a 1-foot-wide conveyor with 3-foot 
working aisles on each side. The storage area con- 
tains 210 square feet. The aisle and conveyor 
occupy 147 square feet of space. The area is pur- 
posely designed with long, narrow storage spaces 
to minimize the distance between stacks of ice 
cream and the conveyor, and to minimize labor 
requirements for storing and loading out. 

AH items will be stored in the order in which they 
appear on the load-out sheet. Thus the worker will 
begin loading the conveyor at the outer wall and 
will move back through the room. Such a system 
minimizes the distance traveled by the worker and 
reduces the waiting time caused by the conveyor 
filling up. Refrigeration losses due to unnecessary 
traffic are eliminated by not having an outside door 
in the room. 

Arrangement of Equipment. — The only item of 
handling equipment required is a conveyor. The 
conveyor is 12 inches wide, approximately 20 
inches high, and 34 feet long. It consists of 30 feet 
of belt conveyor and 4 feet of roller conveyor. The 
roller section, which extends inward from the load- 
out port, is included to permit novelties to be put 
into the room through the port. The conveyor 
extends from the port, through the hardening room 
and vestibule, and into the freezing and packaging 
area. Handling time in storing ice cream is reduced 
by extending the conveyor 5 feet into the freezing 
and packaging area, so that the conveyor will be 
adjacent to the worktable used for bagging con- 
tainers. 

Dry storage room 

The dry storage room is used for storing non- 
perishable ingredients such as cane sugar, corn 
sugar, and chocolate powder; empty cartons, cans, 
and bags; cleaning supplies; and miscellaneous 
small repair parts for plant equipment. 

A plant manufacturing 150,000 gallons of ice 
cream annually receives supplies periodically, often 
in less than trucklot shipments. As a result supplies 
of some items are held in storage longer than they 
would be held in a plant manufacturing a consider- 



ably larger volume of ice cream a year. Nonperish- 
able ingredients are received from one to six times 
a year, empty cartons, cans, and bags from one to 
three times a year, and cleaning supplies from three 
to four times a year. A dry storage room for an ice 
cream plant manufacturing 150,000 gallons annu- 
ally should provide ample space for housing sup- 
plies to maintain a reasonable inventory and ample 
aisle and working space. 

Based on a study of the receipt of supplies and 
methods of storing supplies, 118 square feet of 
space is suggested for storing nonperishable in- 
gredients; 339 square feet for storing empty 
cartons, cans, and bags; 25 square feet for cleaning 
supplies and miscellaneous small repair parts; and 
162 square feet of aisle and working space. The 
total space suggested amounts to 644 square feet. 

A room 24 feet wide and 26 feet 10 inches deep 
is suggested for dry storage. 

In the proposed layout the room adjoins the mix 
area to minimize hauling distances. A 6-foot aisle 
separates two storage areas measuring 9 feet by 
26 feet 10 inches. An open doorway at one end of 
the room leads directly into the mix area, and 
swinging doors are used at the delivery entrance. 
All supplies should be stacked on floor storage 
racks, and repair parts should be stored in cabi- 
nets. Other than storage facilities, no equipment is 
required. 

Machinery room 

The machinery room houses steam generation 
equipment, refrigeration compressors, a sweet- 
water (ice water) tank, an electrical panel, and a 
small repair shop. 

In the proposed layout, the room is located to 
reduce refrigeration losses by minimizing the dis- 
tance from the refrigeration equipment to the 
freezers, plate cooler, and hardening room. It is 
located adjacent to the hardening room and the 
freezing and packaging area. A small maintenance 
area is located at the end of the room which opens 
into the freezing and packaging area. A 7-foot- 
wide door in the outer wall is provided for moving 
large equipment in or out of the plant. An aisle 7 
foot 6 inches is provided for equipment mainten- 
ance and for moving equipment through the room. 
The room covers an area 34 feet 9 inches by 13 feet 
and contains 451.8 square feet of space. 

Laboratory 

The laboratory covers an area 10 feet long by 
13 feet wide. The room is used primarily for testing 
incoming and outgoing products for butterfat con- 
tent, acidity, bacteria count, etc. Work counters 
shouldjline the room on three sides. 

Lockers and toilet 

The locker room contains lockers, showers, sinks, 
and toilets for plant employees. The room, meas- 
uring 12 feet by 13 feet, is located in a corner of the 
plant, to avoid proximity with food-handling areas. 



33 



A locker room should not open directly into any 
room that contains ingredients, products, contain- 
ers, or processing equipment. An employee en- 
trance is located at the end of the corridor adjacent 
to the locker room. 

Offices 

The production manager's office measures 11 
feet by 13 feet. Most of the wall facing production 
areas should be glass paneled to permit the produc- 
tion manager to observe plant operations. 

The main office, measuring 16 feet by 50 feet, is 
designed to accommodate the general manager's or 
owner's office, and the necessary sales, accounting, 
and clerical force. Toilets are included for the office 
force. 

Expansion of plant 

Since the space requirements of ice cream plants 
typically increase at rates in excess of original 
estimates, the proposed plant was designed to 
facilitate expansion. A layout was developed to 
show the effect on plant size of increasing produc- 
tion to 300,000 gallons annually (fig. 28). 



Certain work areas need not be considered as 
creating potential space problems in an expansion 
program. If production requirements were to be 
greatly increased, it is likely that the batch mix- 
making equipment would be replaced by H.T.S.T. 
equipment. Such a change would have little effect 
on the space requirements. Furthermore, it is not 
likely that additional freezers of the same type 
would be purchased. Instead, one of the present 
freezers would probably be replaced by a high- 
capacity freezer. An increase in can storage re- 
quirements would be handled by ordering more 
frequently, or possibly by converting to a bulk 
receiving system. 

If necessary, the main office could be expanded 
by extending the room in either of two directions. 
No need is foreseen for increasing the area of the 
production manager's office, the laboratory, or the 
locker room. 

There are three rooms, however, which would 
require expansion as production increased. These 
rooms are the hardening room, the machinery 
room, and the dry storage room. The three rooms 




1 WEIGH TANK ON SCALE 150 GAL CAP! 

2 PASTEURIZING VAT (300 GAL CAP) 

3 HOMOGENIZES (GOO GAL PER HR ) 

4 PLATE COOLER (5400 LB PER HR) 

5 MIX STORAGE VAT (600 GAL CAP) 

6 MIX STORAGE VAT (300 GAL CAP.) 



7 FLAVOR TANK (50 GAL CAP) 

8 FREEZER (150 GAL PER HR ) 

9 FRUIT FEEDER (PORTABLE) 

10 SPRING TABLE (PORTABLE) 
II WORK TABLE (PORTABLE) 
12 CAN FORMER 



Figure 28. — Layout of proposed 150,000-gallon-per-year plant expanded to handle an annual volume of 300,000 gallons. 



34 



are situated adjacently along one outside wall, and 
could all be extended simultaneously by removing 
the wall. The widths of the three rooms would not 
be changed. In the hardening room no change 
would be made in the vestibule. The storage area, 
however, would be doubled in length to 42 feet. 
Therefore, the size of the entire hardening room 
would be increased from 26 feet by 17 feet to 47 
feet by 17 feet. As a result of increased equipment 



requirements, the machinery room would be en- 
larged from 34 feet 9 inches by 13 feet to 49 feet 
9 inches by 13 feet. Additional space requirements 
for dry supplies would necessitate enlarging the 
storage room from 26 feet 10 inches by 24 feet to 
48 feet by 24 feet. Thus to double the volume of 
ice cream manufactured annually, it would be 
necessary to increase the total plant area to 6,132 
square feet, or 22.95 percent. 



AUTOMATION IN THE ICE CREAM INDUSTRY 



For many years certain ice cream manufacturing 
operations have been performed mechanically. 
Only in recent years, however, have automatic 
controls been used in these mechanized operations. 
Savings resulting from the substitution of automa- 
tion for conventional operating methods must be 
sufficiently large to offset the cost of purchasing, 
installing, and operating the necessary control 
devices. Plants manufacturing relatively large 
volumes of ice cream have realized such savings. 
However, 85 percent of the estimated 3,400 ice 
cream plants in the country manufacture less than 
250,000 gallons annually. It is doubtful that plants 
in this group can economically justify the use of 
many of the various items of automatic equipment 
currently available. 

Some of the automated equipment available, 
and areas of work in which the development of 
additional automated equipment should be con- 
sidered, are discussed below by major operating 
cycles. 

Receiving mix ingredients 

Completely automated systems are now in use 
for receiving mix ingredients. Bulk-receiving tanks 
and panel-controlled pumps permit a worker to 
receive cream, condensed skim milk, liquid cane 
sugar, and liquid corn sugar without leaving the 
master control panel. Sensitive measuring devices 
situated beneath storage tanks weigh the tank 
contents and relay the information to the control 
panel. As the tank load reaches a predetermined 
level, valves are automatically actuated to divert 
the incoming ingredient to another tank. 

Preparing mix 

Programing devices at the control panel regulate 
assembling, mixing, processing, and storing opera- 
tions. The panel operator merely sets the pro- 
gramer for the desired quantity of ingredients and 
sequence of operations. The device then actuates 
the entire operating cycle by controlling automat- 
ically operated pumps and valves. 

Freezing ice cream 

A recent innovation in freezing ice cream is a 
freezer that can be stopped for several minutes, 



and then restarted without the usual rerun period 
while ice cream reaches packaging consistency. 
The freezer can be started after several minutes 
downtime, and will instantly discharge ice cream 
as stiff as that discharged before the shutdown. 
The only rerun necessary will be softened ice cream 
in the freezer-filler pipe. Also available is an im- 
proved device for blending the output of two 
freezers. 

Packaging ice cream 

Many items of automatic equipment are avail- 
able for packaging ice cream. Carton-filling ma- 
chines will handle half-gallons, quarts, or pints, 
or one or two smaller size cartons. The machines, 
however, are not adaptable to various carton sizes. 
Cup-filling machines are more versatile; they 
handle cups ranging in size up to one quart. At 
this time there is no automatic packaging machine 
for gallon cartons on the market. Nor is there any 
device for automatically forming, filling, and clos- 
ing bulk ice cream cans. Machines for wrapping 
individual cartons or groups of cartons are in com- 
mon use. No machine was available at the time 
this study was made for automatically loading and 
sealing bags. Development of a completely auto- 
matic freezing-packaging system would eliminate 
much time now devoted to adjusting and synchro- 
nizing freezing and packaging machines. 

Storing and loading out ice cream 

The following items of equipment are now avail- 
able for storing and loading out: Automatic rout- 
ing systems joining the packaging area and the 
hardening room; automatic hardening tunnels; 
overhead conveyors; and automatic temperature 
controls. Ice cream packages can be conveyed to a 
hardening tunnel, hardened, and discharged. Man- 
ually loaded overhead conveyors move hardened 
packages to the storage site, store them, and then 
transfer them to the load-out port. 

Cleaning manufacturing equipment 

Perhaps the greatest emphasis on ice cream 
automation has been directed toward cleaning 
equipment. Piping can be cleaned in place by circu- 



35 



lating solutions. Vats and tanks can be cleaned by 
portable or permanently installed high-pressure 
spray units. Pasteurizers, plate coolers, and 
homogenizers can be cleaned by circulation ; circu- 
latory cleaning of homogenizers, however, is apt 
to result in worn and pitted valves and cylinders, 
necessitating expensive maintenance or replace- 
ment. A vat designed to provide high-speed circu- 
lation of cleaning solutions may be used to clean 
piping and machine parts from equipment that is 
dismantled. Programing devices, such as those 
employed for preparing mix, can be used for com- 
plete automatic control of circulation cleaning. 



The system adds cleaning agents to wash water 
and controls the cleaning operations for all equip- 
ment according to a preset sequence. A disadvan- 
tage of certain types of programing devices is that 
once the programing is started, it cannot be 
changed or stopped until the cycle of operations 
is completed. Thus, the automatic controls are still 
subject to human error. Positive displacement- 
type pumps, such as freezer mix pumps, should 
not be cleaned by circulation, but should be by- 
passed and washed manually. Packaging machines, 
fruit feeders, and exterior surfaces of tanks and 
machines must be cleaned manually. 



36 



APPENDIX 

Fifteen tables have been prepared as aids in paring ice cream mix, freezing, packaging, storing, 

comparing equipment costs and labor require- and loading out ice cream, and cleaning manufac- 

ments. Table 13 shows ownership and operating turing equipment. Tables 15 to 27 inclusive, show 

costs for each item of equipment used. Table 14 the time required for performing each element of 

shows the fatigue and personal allowances for per- these operations, by each method of handling, 
forming each element in receiving ingredients, pre- 



37 



Table 13. — Ownership and operating costs for ice cream manufacturing 



Equipment 



Receiving ingredients and preparing mix: 

4-wheel handtruck 9 10 u - 

4-wheel handtruck 10 u 12 

Centrifugal pump 9 

Cream storage tank 9 

Skim milk storage tank 9 

Piping and fittings 9 

Centrifugal pump 10 u 

Piping and fittings 10 u 

Weigh tank 10 » 

Weigh tank 13 » 

Platform scale 10 " 

Platform scale 13 u 

Centrifugal pump " n B H 

Piping and fittings 10 13 

Piping and fittings n 14 

Pasteurizing vat n w 

Mix tank 10 13 

Centrifugal pump 10 13 

H.T.S.T. pasteurizer 10 13 

Centrifugal pump 10 13 15 

Homogenizer 10 u 13 M 

Plate cooler u " 

Storage vat 10 » 13 14 

Storage vat 10 u 13 14 

Piping and fittings 10 13 

Piping and fittings u M 



Freezing: 

Centrifugal pump 16 17 

3-tube freezer 16 

2 tubes 

1 tube 

3-compartment flavor tank 16 _ 

Single-tube freezer 17 

Flavor tank 17 

Single-tube freezer 17 

Flavor tank 17 

Fruit feeder 16 

Fruit feeder 17 

Piping and fittings 16 

Piping and fittings 17 



Packaging, storing, and loading out: 

Single-spindle can former 20 21 

Bulk ruling device 20 2l 

Roller conveyor 20 

Platform scale 20 

Can stamping device 20 

Worktable 22 

Worktable 23 

Worktable 24 

Table scale 21 25 

Filling head attachment 26 

Spring table 27 

Bagging chute 28 

Tape dispenser 25 

Wire baskets 29 

Wire baskets 31 

Half-gallon filler 33 

Pint filler 31 

Filling head attachment M 

Bagging chute 36 

Cup filler and capper 37 

Piping and fittings 38 

Piping and fittings 39 

Belt conveyor 40 



Cleaning: 

Pipe washing vat 42 _ 
Pipe washing vat 43 _ 



Amount of 
equipment 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

22 ft. 
1 
14| ft. 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

9* ft. 
12* ft, 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

27 ft. 

31 ft. 



1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
47 ft. 
41| ft, 



1 

1 

12 ft, 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

430 

106 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

17 ft, 

17 ft. 



Size or capacity 



30x48 in 

30 x 48 in 

6,000 lb. per hr__ 

600 gal 

600 gal 

2-inch diam 

6,000 1b. perhr.. 

1* in. diam 

50 gal 

50 gal 

2,000 1b 

2,000 1b 

6,000 lb. per hr__ 

l|-in. diam. 

li-in. diam 

300 gal 

300 gal 

6,000 lb. per hr__ 
5,400 lb. per hr.. 
10,000 lb. per hr. 
600 gal. per hr__ 
5,400 lb. per hr.. 

600 gal 

300 gal 

l|-in. diam 

l§-in. diam 



6,000 lb. per hr. 
300 gal. per hr. 



375 gal 

150 gal. per hr. 

50 gal 

150 gal. per hr_ 
50 gal 



li-in. diam. 
H-in. diam. 



900 gal. per hr. 
300 gal. per hr. 



80 cups per min. 

lf-in. diam 

lj-in. diam 

10 in. wide 



2 x 12 ft. 
2 x 12 ft. 



Initial 
cost : 





12 in. v* 


ide 




125 lb.. 






30 x 48 


in 




30 x 48 


in 




30x48 


in . 




40 lb... 








12 x 18 


in 












8 x 30 x 


1(H 
lOi 


in. _. 


8 x 30 x 


in 



Dollars 

150.00 

150.00 

194.00 

2,145.00 

2,145.00 

467.28 

194.00 

566.61 

500.00 

500.00 

910.00 

910.00 

194.00 

126.49 

151.80 

4,275.00 

1,850.00 

194.00 

12,350.00 

365.00 

4,160.00 

5,220.00 

2,145.00 

1,495.00 

582.13 

569.23 



388.00 
16,000.00 



2,700.00 
8,000.00 
1,450.00 
8,000.00 
1,450.00 
3,250.00 
3,250.00 
1,026.11 
878.13 



550.00 
150.00 
156.40 
579.00 
175.00 
185.00 
185.00 
185.00 
285.00 

75.00 
125.00 

75.00 

125.00 

1.612.50 

397.50 

10,670.00 

8,020.00 

75.00 

75.00 

6,030.00 

439.76 

511.36 

789.00 



485.00 

is;, (III 



Expected 
life 



See footnotes on page 40. 

38 



equipment for a plant -manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually 



Ownership cost 


Operating cost 


Total 

annual 

cost 


Total 
annual 
usage 7 




Deprecia- 
tion 2 


Interest 3 


Insurance 

and 

taxes 4 


Total 


Power, 

fuel, and 

water 6 


Mainte- 
nance ° 


Total 


Cost 
per 

hour 8 


Dollars 

10.00 

10.00 

10.78 

107.25 

107.25 

33.38 

10.78 

40.47 

29.41 

29.41 

60.67 

60.67 

10.78 

9.04 

10.84 

213.75 

92.50 

10.78 

1,029.17 

20.28 

244.71 

290.00 

107.25 

74 . 75 

41.58 

40 . 66 

21.56 
1,000.00 


Dollars 

4.80 

4.80 

6.15 

67.57 

67.57 

15.00 

6.15 

18.19 

15.90 

15.90 

29. 12 

29.12 

6.15 

4.06 

4.87 

134.66 

58.28 

6.15 

401.38 

11.57 

132.29 

165.47 

67.57 

47.09 

18.69 

18.27 

12.30 

510.40 


Dollars 

4.05 

4.05 

5.24 

57 . 92 

57.02 

12.62 

5.24 

15.30 

13.50 

13.50 

24.57 

24 . 57 

5.24 

3.42 

4.10 

115.43 

49.95 

5.24 

333 . 45 

9.86 

112.32 

140.94 

57.92 

40.37 

15.72 

15.37 

10.48 
4.32.00 


Dollars 

18.85 

18.85 

22.17 

232.74 

232 . 74 

61.00 

22.17 

73.96 

:,s si 

58.81 

114.36 

114.36 

22.17 

16.52 

19.81 

463 . 84 

200.73 

22.17 

1,764.00 

41.71 

489.32 

596.41 

232 . 74 

162.21 

75 . 99 

74.30 

44.34 
1,942.40 
591.07 
1,351.33 
292.95 
971.20 
157.33 
971.20 
157.33 
408.42 
408.42 
133.93 
114.62 

69.12 
21.43 
20.41 
72.76 
28.01 
23.25 
23 . 25 
23.25 
35.82 
9.80 
15.71 
19.73 
20.01 

424.09 

104.54 

1,340.86 

1,007.85 

9.80 

19.73 

757.77 
57.40 
66.75 

126.24 

66.08 
66.08 


Dollars 


Dollars 

3 . 50 

3.50 

3.77 

37 . 54 

37 . 54 

11.68 

3.77 

14.17 

10.20 

10.29 

21.23 

21.23 

3.77 

3.16 

3.80 

74.81 

32.38 

3.77 

360.21 

7.10 

85.65 

101 . 50 

37.54 

26.16 

14.55 

14.23 

7.54 

350.00 

106.51 

243 . 49 

47.25 

175.00 

25.38 

175.00 

25.38 

75.83 

75.83 

25.65 

21.95 

12.83 

4.38 

3.91 

13.51 

6.13 

4.32 

4.32 

4.32 

6.65 

1.88 

2.02 

5.25 

4.38 

112.88 

27 . 83 

248.00 

187.13 

1.88 

5.25 

140.70 

10.99 

12.78 

27.62 

13.06 
13.06 


Dollars 

3.50 

3.50 

4.26 

06.75 

06.75 

11.68 

4.26 

14.17 

10.29 

10.29 

23.23 

21.23 

4.42 

3.16 

3.80 

304.21 

37.21 

4.63 

431.66 

16.06 

137.49 

219.26 

292.99 

184.62 

14.55 

14.23 

8.32 


Dollars 

22.35 

22.35 

26.43 

329.49 

329.49 

72. 6S 

26 . 43 

88.13 

00.10 

60.10 

135.59 

135.59 

26.59 

19.68 

23.61 

768.05 

237.04 

26.80 

2,195.06 

57.77 

626.81 

815.67 

525 . 73 

346.83 

90 . 54 

88.53 

52.66 


Hours 

31 

130 

71 

8,760 

8,760 

71 

71 

71 

180 

128 

180 

1 28 

95 

05 

95 

100 

239 

128 

128 

442 

128 

128 

8,760 

8,760 

128 

128 

116 


Dollars 

0.7210 
.1719 
.3723 
.0376 
.0376 

1 0237 




0.49 
59.21 
59.21 


.49 


.3723 

l .I'll:: 
3839 




5398 




7533 


~~~65~ 


1.0593 

.2799 

''072 




248.5 


229.40 

4.83 

.86 

71.45 

8.96 

51.84 

117.76 

255.45 

158.46 


1.5485 

.0050 

.2004 

17.1536 

.1307 

4.8970 

6.3724 

.0600 

.0396 

.7073 

00 Hi 


.78 


.4540 


236.47 

279.23 
28.89 

385.32 
5.32 

374.33 
5.16 
6.45 
4.19 


342.98 

522 . 72 
76.14 

560.00 
30.70 

549.33 
30.54 
82.28 
SO 02 
25.65 
21.95 

13.48 

4.38 

3.91 

13.51 

6.13 

4.32 

4.32 

4.32 

6.65 

1.88 

2.92 

5.25 

4.38 

112.88 

27.83 

261.19 

188.70 

I ss 

5.25 

1 42 . 24 

10.99 

12.78 

39.42 

13.92 
13.52 


934.05 

1,874.05 

369.00 

1,531.52 

188.03 

1,520.53 

187.87 

490.70 

488.44 

159.58 

136.57 

82.60 

25.81 

24.32 

86 . 27 

34.14 

27.57 

27.57 

27 . 57 

42.47 

11.68 

18.63 

24.98 

24.39 

536.97 

132.37 

1,602.05 

1,196.55 

1 1 .OS 
24. 9S 

900.01 
68.39 
79.53 

165.66 

80.00 
79 . 60 


399 

912 

1,427 

736 

788 
707 
762 
764 
497 
116 
116 

47 

132 

132 

1 

3 

831 

785 

575 

31 

871 

207 

120 

42 

100 

186 

604 

232 

232 

33 

70 

1,443 

1,311 

1,311 

128 
66 


2.3410 

2 0540 








135.00 
500.00 

72.50 
500.00 

72 . 50 
216.67 
216.67 

73.29 

62.72 

36.67 
12.50 
11.17 
38 . 60 
17.50 
12.33 
12.33 
12.33 
19.00 
5.36 
8.33 
15.00 
12.50 

322.50 
79.50 

711.33 

534.67 

5.36 

15.00 

402.00 
31.41 
36.53 
78.90 

37.31 
37.31 


85.05 
255.20 

45.68 
255.20 

45.68 
104.00 
104 . 00 

32.94 

28.19 

17.60 

4.88 

5.02 

18.53 

5.78 

5.92 

5.92 

5.92 

9.12 

2.41 

4.00 

2.70 

4.13 

58.05 

14.31 

341.44 

256.64 

2.41 

2.70 

192.96 

14.12 

16.41 

26.04 

15.67 
15.67 


72.90 
216.00 
39 . 15 
216.00 
39.15 
87.75 
87.75 
27 . 70 
23.71 

14.85 

4.05 

4.22 

15.63 

4.73 

5.00 

5.00 

5.00 

7.70 

2.03 

3.38 

2.03 

3.38 

43.54 

10.73 

288.09 

216.54 

2.03 

2.03 

162.81 

11.87 

13.81 

21.30 

13.10 
13.10 


.2586 

18 2.0809 

18 .2386 

19 2. 1507 

19 .2465 
. 6423 
.9828 

1 3757 




1.1773 


.65 


1 . 7574 
. 1955 




.1842 




86 . 2700 




11.3800 




. 0332 




.0351 




.0479 




1.3700 




.0134 




.0698 





.2082 
. 5807 




30 5.. ".007 




32 .7117 


12.23 
1.57 


2 . 6524 

5.1575 

. 0503 


1~54~ 


.7570 

11.8422 
.0474 




.0007 


11.80 

.86 
.46 


41 .120! 

.6250 
1.2061 



39 



1 Based on f.o.b. factorj" costs. 

2 Computed b}' straight -line depreciation method. 

3 Based on average interest over life of the item. To com- 
pute, use E=R(N+1)/2N where E is average interest, B 
is interest rate required for investment (6 percent), and N is 
life expectancy of the item. 

4 2.7 percent of initial cost. 

5 2.7 cents per kw.-hr. for power, 6.7 cents per therm for 
fuel, and 0.018 cent per gallon for water. 

6 35 percent of the initial cost, over life of the item. 

7 Total number of hours each item of equipment is used in 
one or more operations. 

s Computed average based on annual cost and hours of 
equipment usage. 

9 Items used for receiving ingredients by bulk, handtruck 
method. 

10 Items used for preparing mix by bulk and H.T.S.T. 
method. 

11 Items used for preparing mix by bulk and batch method. 

12 Items used for receiving ingredients by can, handtruck 
method. 

13 Items used for preparing mix by can and H.T.S.T. 
method. 

14 Items used for preparing mix by can and batch method. 

15 Used for preparing mix by bulk and H.T.S.T. and can 
and H.T.S.T. methods, and for cleaning type 1 equipment. 

16 Items used for freezing by three-tube method. 

17 Items used for freezing by single-tube method. 

18 Used when freezing for 5- and 2§-gallon cans, and half- 
gallon cartons. 

19 Used when freezing for 5- and 24-gallon cans, gallon 
and pint cartons, and 5- and 3-ounce cups. 

20 Items used for packaging cans by single-spindle, con- 
veyor method. 

21 Items used for packaging cans b} r single-spindle, manual 
method. 

22 Used for packaging 5- and 2|-gaUon cans hj single- 
spindle, manual; gallon cartons by two-worker, manual and 
two-worker, chute, and basket methods; half-gallon cartons 
by three-worker, manual method; pint cartons by four- 
worker, manual; 5-ounce cups by four-worker, manual; and 
3-ounce cups by five-worker, manual methods. 

23 Used for packaging gallon cartons by spring-table 
manual method, and for packaging half-gallon and pint, 
cartons and cups by filler, manual methods. 

24 Used for packaging gallon cartons by spring-table, chute, 
and basket method, or two-worker, chute, and basket method; 
for packaging half-gallon and pint cartons by filler, chute, 
and basket method, or manual, chute, and basket method; 
and for packaging cups by filler, basket method or manual, 
basket methods. 

25 Items used for packaging by the following methods: Gal- 
lon cartons — two-worker, manual; spring-table, manual; 
spring-table, chute, and basket; and two-worker, chute, and 
basket. Half-gallon cartons — two-worker, chute, and basket; 
three-worker, manual; filler, manual; and filler, chute, and 
basket. Pint cartons — filler, manual; filler, chute, and basket; 
four-worker, manual; and three-worker, chute, and basket. 
5-ounce cups — four-worker, manual; four-worker, basket; 
filler, manual; and filler, basket. 3-ounce cups — two-worker, 
filler, manual; two-worker, filler, basket; five-worker, manual; 
and five-worker, basket. 



28 Items used for packaging by the following methods : 
Gallon cartons — two-worker, manual; spring-table, manual; 
spring-table, chute, and basket; and two-worker, chute, and 
basket. Half-gallon cartons — two-worker, chute, and basket, 
and three-worker, manual. 

27 Items used for packaging gallon cartons by spring-table, 
manual and spring-table, chute, and basket methods. 

28 Items used for packaging gallon cartons by spring-table, 
chute, and basket, and two-worker, chute, and basket meth- 
ods; and half -gallon cartons by two-worker, chute, and 
basket, and filler, chute, and basket methods. 

29 Items used for packaging gallon cartons by spring-table, 
chute, and basket and two-worker, chute, and basket meth- 
ods; half -gallon cartons by two-worker, chute, and basket and 
filler, chute, and basket methods; pint cartons by filler, chute, 
and basket and three-worker, chute, and basket methods; 
5-ounce cups by four-worker, basket and filler, basket meth- 
ods; and 3-ounce cups by two-worker, filler, basket and five- 
worker, basket methods; for storing cartons and cups hx 
basket and conveyor method; and for loading out cartons 
and cups by basket and conveyor method. 

30 Cost allocated on basis of hourlv usage for each operation: 
S2.1420 for packaging, 81.9862 for storing, and 81.2415 for 
loading out. 

31 Used for storing cartons and cups by the double-stack 
method. 

32 Cost allocated among containers on basis of volume 
stored for each container size. 

33 Used for packaging half-gallon cartons by filler, manual 
and filler, chute, and basket methods. 

34 Used for packaging pint cartons by filler, manual and 
filler, chute, and basket methods. 

35 Used for packaging pint cartons by four-worker, manual 
and three-worker, chute, and basket methods. 

36 Used for packaging pint cartons by filler, chute, and 
basket and three-worker, chute, and basket methods. 

37 Used for packaging 5-ounce cups by filler, manual and 
filler, chute, and basket methods, and 3-ounce cups by two- 
worker, filler, manual and two-worker, filler, basket methods. 

38 Used for packaging 5- and 2§-gallon cans by single- 
spindle, manual method; gallon cartons b3 r two-worker, 
manual and two-worker, chute, and basket methods; half- 
gallon cartons by two-worker, chute, and basket and three- 
worker, manual methods; pint cartons by four-worker, 
manual and three-worker, chute, and basket methods; 
5-ounce cups by four-worker, manual and four-worker, 
basket methods; and 3-ounce cups b3 r five-worker, manual 
and five-worker, basket methods. 

39 Used for packaging 5- and 2J-gallon cans by single- 
spindle, conveyor method; gallon cartons bj r spring-table, 
manual and spring-table, chute, and basket methods; half- 
gallon and pint cartons by filler, manual and filler, chute, 
and basket methods: 5-ounce cups by filler, manual and 
filler, basket methods; and 3-ounce cups by two-worker, 
filler, manual and two-worker, filler, basket methods. 

40 30-foot belt conveyor with 4-foot roller conveyor at- 
tached. 

41 Cost allocated on basis of hourlv usage for each operation : 
80.1207 for storing and 80.0057 for* loading out. 

42 Used for cleaning equipment for bulk receiving, H.T.S.T. 
mix making, 3-tube freezing, and filler packaging. 

43 Used for cleaning equipment for can receiving, batch 
mix-making, single-tube freezing, and manual packaging. 



40 



Table 14. — Fatigue and personal allowances for 'performing handling operations in ice cream manufacturing plants 



Item 



Receiving ingredients and pre- 
paring mix: 

Check and close tank drain 
valves, adjust intake 
valve, and start and stop 
pump 

Load 100-pound sacks of 
cane and corn sugar onto 
4- wheel handtruck 

Transport 100-pound sacks 
by 4-wheel handtruck 

Unload and stack 100-pound 
sacks 

Push empty 4-wheel hand- 
truck 

Load 10-gallon cans of cream 
or skim milk onto 4-wheel 
handtruck 

Transport full 10-gallon cans 
by 4-wheel handtruck 

Unload and stack full 10- 
gallon cans 

Si art and stop pump 

Weigh ingredients 

Open sacks of cane or corn 
sugar and pour into mix 
tank (2 men) 

Discard empty sacks 

Get, mix, and add stabilizer 
to mix tank 

Get, mix, and add emulsifier 
to mix tank 

Open 10-gallon cans 

Empty cans into weigh tank. 

Rinse cans 

Transport empty 10-gallon 
cans by 4-wheel hand- 
truck 

Turn steam on or off 

Freezing ice cream: 

Start and stop mix pump 

Add flavor and coloring to 

mix 

Set up freezer 

Set up fruit feeder and fill 

hopper 

Packaging ice cream in 5- and 2\- 
gallon cans: 

Perform all elements of can- 
forming operations 

Switch cans beneath filler 

Position lid on full can 

Weigh can on conveyor 

Pick up empty can 

Place full 5-gallon can on 

table 

Place full 2 ^-gallon can on 

table 

Stamp flavor and date on 

can 

Weigh can on table 

Push aside can on table 

Set up filler 

Packaging ice cream in cartons: 

Perform all elements of 
forming, filling, and bag- 
ging operations 



Allowances 



Fatigue 



Percent 



20 

10 

20 

5 

20 

10 

20 
5 
5 



15 
5 



5 

5 

20 

10 



10 
5 



o 
5 
5 
5 
5 

15 

10 

5 

5 

5 

10 



Personal 



Percent 



Total 



Percent 



10 

25 
15 
25 
10 

25 

15 

25 
10 
10 



20 
10 

10 

10 
10 
25 
15 



15 
10 



10 

10 
10 

10 



10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

20 

15 

10 
10 
10 
15 



li) 



Item 



Set up equipment 

Packaging ice cream in cups: 

Perform all elements of 
filling and bagging opera- 
tions 

Set up equipment 

Storing and loading out 5- and 
2 ^-gallon cans of ice cream: 

Pick up 5-gallon can or two 
25-gallon cans, transport 
6 feet to cold room port, 
open door, place can on 
ledge, and return 

Walk into hardening room 

Transport 5-gallon can or 
two 2f-gallon cans in 
hardening room 

Stack 5-gallon can or two 
2§-gallon cans 

Push 5-gallon can or 2\- 
gallon can onto belt con- 
veyor from roller con- 
veyor 

Transfer 5-gallon can from 
conveyor to stack 

Transfer 25-gallon can from 
conveyor to stack 

Transfer 5-gallon can from 
floor stack to conveyor 

Transfer 2i-gallon can from 
floor stack to conveyor 

Storing and loading out cartons 
and cups of ice cream: 

Transfer bag from worktable 
to conveyor 

Pull 4 empty baskets to con- 
veyor 

Position empty basket for 
loading 

Transfer bag from conveyor 
to basket 

Pull 4 full baskets 6 feet 

Stack baskets in 6-high stack. 

Unstack basket, carry 6 feet, 
and dump bags on con- 
veyor 

Place empty basket in stack. 

Transfer 2 bags from con- 
veyor to stack 

Transfer full basket from 
bagging table to conveyor. 

Transfer full basket from 
conveyor to floor 

Pick up and carry 4 bags 6 
feet from worktable to 
coldroom port, open door, 
place bags on ledge, and 
return 

Pick up 4 bags from ledge... 

Carry 4 bags into hardening 
room 

Stack bags on shelf 

Cleaning manufacturing equip- 
ment: 

Perform all elements of 
cleaning operations 



Allowances 



Fatigue 



Percent 
10 



5 
10 



10 
5 


5 
10 


10 


10 


15 


10 


5 


5 


15 


10 


10 


10 


15 


10 


10 


10 



Personal 



Pera ni 
5 



5 


5 


5 


10 


5 


10 


5 
10 

15 


10 
10 
10 


15 
5 


10 
10 


5 


10 


15 


5 


15 


10 



5 
10 

10 
10 



10 



Total 



Percent 
15 



10 
15 



15 
15 



20 
25 

10 

25 
20 
25 
20 



10 

15 

15 

15 
20 
25 

25 
15 

15 

20 

25 



10 
15 

15 
15 



15 



41 



Table 15. — Receiving ingredients for ice cream mix: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons of ice cream in a plant 
manufacturing 150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item 





Frequency 

of 
occurrence 


Productive time 


Unproductive 
time 




Method and time item 


Base time 


Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 


Total 


Total labor 

requirements 


Bulk and handtruck method: 

Check and close tank drain valves, 
adjust intake valve, and start and 
stop pump 


Number 

1 

8 

1 
8 
1 


Man-hours 


0.02 

.02 

C 1 ) 


Man-hours 
0.01 

C 1 ) 

.01 


Man-hours 

0.03 

.03 

C 1 ) 


Man-hours 


Man-hours 
C 1 ) 


Load 100-pound sacks of cane and 
corn sugar onto 4- wheel handtruck. 

Transport sacks 16 feet to storage 
location - _ - _ _ 




0.03 




C 1 ) 


Unload and stack sacks. 




.03 


Return truck to receiving entrance... 
Machine-regulated wait time (wait- 
ing for tanks to fill) 




C 1 ) 


0.47 


.47 














Total 




.04 


.02 


.06 


.47 


.53 








Can and handtruck method: 

Load 10-gallon cans of cream and 


32 
4 

32 
4 

8 

1 
8 
1 


.06 
.03 
.06 
.02 

.02 

C 1 ) 
.02 


.01 

( x ) 
.01 

.01 

C 1 ) 

.01 


.07 
.03 
.07 
.02 

.03 
.03 




.07 


Move truck 11 feet to storage room.. 
Unload and stack cans 




.03 




.07 


Return truck to receiving entrance 

Load 100-pound sacks of cane and 

corn sugar onto 4-wheel hand truck. 
Transport sacks 16 feet to storage 

location 




.02 




.03 




W 


Unload and stack sacks 




.03 


Return truck to receiving entrance... 




0) 






Total 




.21 


.04 


.25 




.25 















1 Labor required is less than 0.01 man-hour per 1,000 gallons. 



42 



Table 16.— Preparing ice cream mix: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons of ice cream in a plant manufacturing 
150,000 gallons of ice cream annually, by method and time item 





Frequency 

of 
occurrence 


Productive time 


Unproductive 
time 




Method and time item 


Base time 


Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 


Total 


i Total labor 
requirements 


Bulk and H.T.S.T. method: 
Start and stop pump . 


Number 
G 
G 

8 

1 

8 
1 

1 
2 

2 

3 

3 
3 


Man-hours 
0.02 
0) 

.02 

0) 

.09 
0) 
« 

.08 

0) 

.03 

.02 
.02 


Man-hours 
C 1 ) 
0.01 

C 1 ) 

.02 
W 

C 1 ) 

.01 

« 
( l ) 

w 


Man-hours 
0.02 
C 1 ) 

.03 

« 

.11 

.09 

C 1 ) 

.03 

.02 
.02 


Man-hours 


Man-hours 
0.02 


Weigh ingredients-. _ . 




Load 100-pound sacks of cane and 
corn sugar onto 4-wheel handtruck. 




.03 


Move truck (average distance 32 feet) 
to mix area 




Open sacks, pour contents into mix 
tank, and put sacks aside . 




( ) 

.11 

( v ) 


Return truck to dry storage room 




Discard empty sacks .. 




a\ 


Add water to weigh tank. . 




\ ) 

.09 


Weigh water.. 




Get, mix, and add stabilizer to mix 
tank 




(*) 

.03 

.02 
.02 

.47 

.47 
.17 

.86 


Get, mix, and add emulsifier to mix 
tank ... __ 




Start and stop pump 




Machine-regulated wait time: 

Pump cream and skim milk to 
weigh tank ... 


0.47 

.47 
.17 

.86 


Drain cream and skim milk from 
weigh tank- .. . 










Drain water from weigh tank 










Pasteurize, homogenize, and 
store mix 




















Total 




.28 


.04 


.zi 


1.97 








2.29 


Can and H.T.S.T. method: 

Push 4-wheel handtruck (average 
distance 15 feet) to can storage 
cooler. 


4 
32 

4 
32 
32 

6 
32 

4 

4 

8 

i 

8 
1 
1 
2 
2 

3 

3 
3 


.03 

.00 

.03 
.05 
.10 
(') 
.09 
.03 
.03 

.02 

0) 

.09 

.08 
0) 

.03 

.02 
.02 


.01 

(') 
.01 
.03 

C 1 ) 

.01 

0) 

« 

.01 

0) 
.02 

C 1 ) 

.01 

W 
C 1 ) 

« 

( [ ) 


.03 

.07 

.03 
.06 
.13 
C 1 ) 
.10 
.03 
.03 

.03 
C 1 ) 

.11 
( J ) 
W 

.09 



.03 

.02 

.02 




.03 

.07 

.03 

.06 

13 


Load 10-gallon cans of cream and 
skim milk on truck 




Move truck (average distance 15 feet) 
to mix area - 




Open cans . _. 




Emptv cans into weigh tank 




Weigh ingredients. 




C 1 ) 

.10 
.03 
.03 

.03 


Rinse cans - 




Return empty cans to cooler 
Return empty truck 





Load 100-pound sacks of cane and 
corn sugar on truck.- . 




Move truck (average distance 32 
feet) l,u mix area _ _ - _ __ 




Open sacks, pour contents into mix 
tank, and put sacks aside - 




11 


Return truck to dry storage room.. 




f 1 ) 


Discard empty sacks. _ . _ _ 




09 


Add water to weigh tanks . 




Weigh water ._ _ _ . 




t 1 ) 


Get, mix, and add stabilizer to mix 
tank. _ _ _ . 




\ 1 

03 


Get, mix, and add emulsifier to mix 
tank .. . .. 




02 


Start and stop pump. . . 




02 


Machine-regulated wait time: 

Drain cream and skim milk from 
weigh tank 


.17 
.17 

.86 


47 


Drain water from weigh tank 










17 


Pasteurize, homogenize, and 
store mix ._ ._ 










86 














Total 




.68 


.10 


.78 


1.50 


2.28 







43 



Table 16. — Preparing ice cream mix: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons of ice cream in a plant manufacturing 
150,000 gallons of ice cream annually, by method and time item — Continued 



Method and time item 



Bulk and batch method: 

Start and stop pump 

Weigh ingredients 

Load 100-pound sacks of cane and 

corn sugar onto 4-wheel handtruck. 

Move truck (average distance 32 

feet) to mix area 

Open sacks, pour contents into pas- 
teurizing vat, and put sacks aside... 

Return truck to dry storage room 

Discard empty sacks 

Add water to weigh tank 

Weigh water 

Get, mix, and add stabilizer to pas- 
teurizing vat 

Get, mix, and add emulsifier to pas- 
teurizing vat 

Turn on steam at pasteurizing vat. . . 

Turn off steam 

Machine-regulated wait time: 

Pump cream and skim milk to 

weigh tank 

Drain cream and skim milk from 

weigh tank 

Drain water from weigh tank 

Heat mix to 160° F 

Hold mix in vat for 30 minutes.. 
Homogenize, cool, and store mix. 



Frequency 

of 
occurrence 



Number 



Total. 



Can and batch method: 

Push 4-wheel handtruck (average 
distance 15 feet) to can storage 

cooler 

Load 10-gallon cans of cream and 

skim milk on truck 

Move truck (average distance 15 

feet) to mix area 

Open cans 

Empty cans into weigh tank 

Weigh ingredients 

Rinse cans 

Return empty can to cooler 

Return empty truck 

Load 100-pound sacks of cane and 

corn sugar on truck 

Transport (average distance 32 feet) 

to mix area^ : 

Open sacks, pour contents into pas- 
teurizing vat, and put sacks aside... 

Return truck to dry storage room 

Discard empty sacks 

Add water to weigh tank 

■Weigh water 

Get, mix, and add stabilizer to pas- 
teurizing vat 

Get, mix, and add emulsifier to pas- 
teurizing vat _ 

Turn on steam at pasteurizing vat_ . . 

Turn off steam 

Machine-regulated time: 

Drain cream and skim milk from 

weigh tank 

Drain water from weigh tank 

Heat mix to 160° F 

Hold mix in vat for 30 minutes.. 
Homogenize, cool, and store mix. 



Total. 



Productive time 



Base time 



Man-hours 
.02 



.02 



« 



0) 



.09 



.34 



32 

4 
32 
32 

6 
32 

4 

4 



( l ) 



.03 

.06 

.03 
.05 
.10 

.09 
.03 
.03 

.02 



Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 



Man-hours 
C 1 ) 



.01 



« 



.02 



.08 


.01 


.03 





.02 
.04 
.04 


.01 
.01 



.06 



C 1 ) 



« 



.01 



ffl 






.09 



.08 



.03 

.02 
.04 
.04 



.74 



0) 



.01 
.03 

.01 



111 



C 1 ) 

C 1 ) 




.02 



.01 



.01 
.01 



.12 



Total 



Man-hours 
.02 



C 1 ) 



C 1 ) 

C 1 ) 



.03 



.11 



.09 



.03 

.02 
.05 
.05 



.40 



Unproductive 
time 



Man-hours 



w 



.03 

.07 

.03 
.06 
.13 

.10 
.03 
.03 

.03 



« 






11 



.09 



.03 

.02 
.05 
.05 



.86 



.47 

.47 
.17 
.84 
.84 



Total labor 
requirements 



Man-hours 
.02 



« 



C 1 ) 
0) 



3.65 



.47 
.17 
.84 
.84 
.86 



3.18 



« 



( l ) 







Labor requirement is less than 0.01 man-hour per 1,000 gallons. 



44 



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46 



Table 19. — Packaging ice cream in gallon cartons: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons in a plan! manufac- 
turing 150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item 



Method and time item 



Frequency 

of 
occurrence 



Productive time 



Base time 



Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 



Total 



Unproductive 
time 



Total labor 
requirements 



Two-worker, manual method: 

Pick up, form, and stack empty car- 
ton 

Fill carton by holding under filling 

head 

Close full carton 

Place full carton on table 

Open bag 

Add 2 cartons 

Place bag on table 

Dispense tape 

Close and tape bag 

Stamp flavor and date on bag 

Weigh bag (every tenth bag) 

Stack bag on table 

Set up equipment 

Machine-regulated wait time 



Total. 



Spring-table, manual method: 

Open carton 

Switch cartons on platform 

Close full carton 

Place carton on table 

Open bag 

Add 2 cartons 

Place bag on table 

Dispense tape 

Close and tape bag 

Stamp flavor and date on bag. 
Weigh bag (every tenth bag)_. 

Stack bag on table 

Set up equipment 

Machine-regulated wait time.. 



Total. 



Spring-table, chute, and basket method: 

Open carton 

Switch cartons on platform 

Close full carton 

Place carton on table 

Open bag 

Place bag on chute 

Pull 2 cartons into bag 

Place bag on table 

Dispense tape 

Close and tape bag 

Weigh bag (every tenth bag) 

Stack bag in basket 

Position empty basket 

Pull 4 empty baskets 4 feet to table . 

Set up equipment 

Machine-regulated wait time 



Number 



1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

50 

500 

1 



Total. 



Man-hours 



0.65 

7.14 
.78 
.25 
.45 
.63 
.25 
.17 
.84 
.36 
.13 
.21 
.71 



Man-hours 



0.07 



« 



12.57 



1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

50 

500 

1 



1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

50 

500 

100 

25 

1 



.76 
.30 
.86 
.44 
.45 
.63 
.25 
.17 
.84 
.36 
.13 
.21 
.71 



6.11 



.76 
.30 
.86 
.44 
.45 
.21 
.30 
.16 
.17 
.84 
.13 
.27 
.10 
.15 
.71 



5.85 



.08 
.03 
.04 
.06 
.03 
.02 
.0!) 
.04 
.01 
.02 
.11 



Man-hours 



0.72 

7.14 
.86 
.28 
.49 
.69 
.28 
.19 
.93 
.40 
.14 
.23 
.82 



Man-hours 



1.93 



Man-hours 



0.72 

7.14 
.86 
.28 
.49 
.69 
.28 
.19 
.93 
.40 
.14 
.23 
.82 

1.93 



0.60 



13.17 



1.93 



.08 
.03 
.09 
.04 
.04 
.06 
.03 
.02 
.09 
.04 
.01 
.02 
.11 



.84 
.33 
.95 
.48 
.49 
.69 
.28 
.19 
.93 
.40 
.14 
.23 



.66 



6.77 



.08 
.03 
.09 
.04 
.04 
.02 
.03 
.02 
.02 
.09 
.01 
.03 
.01 
.02 
.11 



.84 
.33 
.95 
.48 
.49 
.23 
.33 
.18 
.19 
.93 
.14 
.30 
.11 
.17 
.82 



.64 



li. P.i 



1.19 



1.19 



1.47 
1.47 



15.10 



.84 
.33 
.95 
.48 
.49 
.69 
.28 
.19 
.93 
.40 
.14 
.23 
.82 
1.19 



7.96 



.84 
.33 
.95 
.48 
.49 
.23 
.33 
.18 
.19 
.93 
.14 
.30 
.11 
.17 
.82 
1.47 

7.96 



47 



Table 19. — Packaging ice cream in gallon cartons: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons in a plant manufac- 
turing 150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item — Continued 



Method and time item 



Frequency 

of 
occurrence 



Productive time 



Base time 



Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 



Total 



Unproductive 
time 



Total labor 
requirements 



Two-worker, chute, and basket method: 
Pick up, form, and stack empty 

carton 

Fill carton by holding under filling 

head 

Close full carton 

Place full carton on table 

Open bag 

Place bag on chute 

Pull 2 cartons into bag 

Place bag on table 

Dispense tape 

Close and tape bag 

Weigh bag (every tenth bag) 

Stack bag in basket 

Position empty basket 

Pull 4 empty baskets 4 feet to table 

Set up equipment 

Machine-regulated wait time 



Number 



1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

50 

500 

100 

25 

1 



Man-hours 



.65 

7.14 
.78 
.25 
.45 
.21 
.30 
.16 
.17 
.84 
.13 
.27 
.10 
.15 
.71 



Man-hours 



.07 



« 



.08 
.03 
.04 
.02 
.03 
.02 
.02 
.09 
.01 
.03 
.01 
.02 
.11 



Man-hours 



.72 

'.14 
.86 
.28 
.49 
.23 
.33 
.18 
.19 
.93 
.14 
.30 
.11 
.17 
.82 



Man-hours 



2.21 



Man-hours 



.72 

7.14 
.86 
.28 
.49 
.23 
.33 
.18 
.19 
.93 
.14 
.30 
.11 
.17 
.82 

2.21 



Total. 



12.31 



.58 



12.89 



2.21 



15.10 



1 No fatigue or personal allowance is included since cartons are filled continuously, and the worker must stay abreast of 
the filling pace. To compensate for fatigue incurred while filling cartons, the two workers take turns at filling cartons. 



Table 20. — Packaging ice cream in half-gallon cartons: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons in a plant manu- 
facturing 150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item 





Frequency 

of 
occurrence 


Productive time 


Unproductive 
time 




Method and time item 


Base time 


Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 


Total 


Total labor 
requirements 


Two-worker, chute, and basket method: 
Pick up, form, and stack empty 
carton 


Number 

2,000 

2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 

100 
1,000 

167 

42 

1 


Man-hours 

2.00 

10.00 
1.16 
.50 
.88 
.42 
.55 
.42 
.35 
1.68 
.25 
.55 
.17 
.06 
.43 


Man-hours 

0.20 

( x ) 
.12 
.05 
.09 
.04 
.06 
.04 
.04 
.17 
.03 
.06 
.02 
.01 
.06 


Man-hours 

2.20 

10.00 
1.28 
.55 
.97 
.46 
.61 
.46 
.39 
1.85 
.28 
.61 
.19 
.07 
.49 


Man-hours 


Man-hours 
2.20 


Fill carton by holding under filling 




10.00 


Close full carton 




1.28 






.55 


Open bag 




.97 


Position bag on chute _ . _ _ . _ 
Pull 2 cartons into bag 




.46 




.61 


Place bag on table. ______ _ _ 

Dispense tape 




.46 




.39 


Close and tape bag 




1.85 


Weigh bag (everv tenth bag).. 

Stack bag in basket. _ . - 
Position emptv basket 




.28 




.61 




.19 


Pull 4 empty baskets 4 feet to table 

Set up equipment.. 




.07 




.49 


Machine-regulated wait time 


0.08 


.08 














Total 




19.42 


.99 


20.41 


.08 


20.49 









48 



Table 20. — Packaging ice cream in half-gallon cartons: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons in a plant manu- 
facturing 150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item — Continued 





Frequency 

of 
occurrence 


Productive time 


Unproductive 
time 




Method and time item 


Base time 


Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 


Total 


Total labor 
requirements 


Three-worker, manual method: 

Pick up, form and stack empty carton. 


Number 

2,000 

2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
100 
1,000 

1 


Man-hours 

2.00 

10.00 

1.16 

.50 

.88 

1.26 

.52 

.35 

1.68 

.74 

.25 

.42 

.43 


Man-hours 

.20 

« 
.12 
.05 
.09 
.13 
.05 
.04 
.17 
.07 
.03 
.04 
.06 


Man-hours 

2.20 

10.00 

1.28 

.55 

.97 

1.39 

.57 

.39 

1.85 

.81 

.28 

.46 

.49 


Man-hours 


Mau-liours 
2.20 


Fill carton by holding under filling 
head .. 




10 00 


Close full carton .. 




1 28 


Place full carton on table 




55 


Open bag 




97 


Add 2 cartons. _ . . 




1 39 


Place bag on table ... 




57 


Dispense tape _ .... 




39 


Close and tape bag 




1 85 


Stamp flavor and date on bag 




.81 


Weigh bag (every tenth bag).. 




.28 


Stack bag on table 




46 


Set up equipment. ... 




49 


Machine-regulated wait time 


9.25 


9 25 














Total 




20.19 


1.05 


21.24 


9.25 


30 49 








Filler, manual method: 

Add 40 carton blanks to filling ma- 
chine. . . 


50 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
100 
1,000 

1 


.14 
.88 

1.26 
.52 
.35 

1.68 
.74 
.25 
.42 
.83 


.01 
.09 
.13 
.05 
.04 
.17 
.07 
.03 
.04 
.12 


.15 
.97 

1.39 
.57 
.39 

1.85 
.81 
.28 
.46 
.95 




15 


Open bag . _ _ 




97 


Add 2 cartons . ... 




1 39 


Place bag on table _ 




57 


Dispense tape 




.39 


Close and tape bag. .. _ _ ... 




1 85 


Stamp flavor and date on bag. . . 




.81 


Weigh bag (every tenth bag) . ... 




.28 


Stack bag on table _ _ 




46 


Set up equipment . . . 




95 


Machine-regulated wait time.. 


3.13 


3 13 














Total 




7.07 


.75 


7.82 


3.13 


10 95 








Filler, chute, and basket method: 

Add 40 carton blanks to filling ma- 
chine . .. _ . . 


50 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

100 

1,000 

167 

42 

1 


.14 
.88 
.42 
.55 
.42 
.35 
1.68 
.25 
.55 
.17 
.06 
.83 


.01 
.09 
.04 
.06 
.04 
.04 
.17 
.03 
.06 
.02 
.01 
.12 


.15 

.97 
.46 
.61 
.46 
.39 
1.85 
.28 
.61 
.19 
.07 
.95 




15 


Open bag ... 




97 


Position bag on chute _ . 




.46 


Pull 2 cartons into bag . 




61 


Place bag on table _ . _ _ 




46 


Dispense tape . . ... 




.39 


Close and tape bag. . __ 




1.85 


Weigh bag (every tenth bag) ... 




.28 


Stack bag in basket. 




.61 


Position empty basket . 




. l'.i 


Pull 4 empty baskets 4 feet to table 




.07 


Set up equipment .. ... . . 




. 95 


Machine-regulated wait time.. . 


3.96 


3 . 96 














Total 




6.30 


.69 


6.99 


3.96 


10 95 









1 No fatigue or personal allowance is included since cartons are filled continuously, and the filling worker must stay 
abreast of the filling pace. To compensate for fatigue incurred while filling cartons, the workers take turns at filling cartons. 



49 



Table 21. — Packaging ice cream in -pint cartons: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons in a plant manufac- 
turing 150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item 





Frequency 

of 
occurrence 


Productive time 


Unproductive 
time 




Method and time item 


Base time 


Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 


Total 


Total labor 
requirements 


Filler, manual method: 

Add 50 carton blanks to filling ma- 
chine 


Number 

160 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 

100 

1,000 

2 


Man-hours 

0.41 
.88 

2.44 
.52 
.35 

1.68 
.74 
.25 
.42 

2.85 


Man-hours 

0.04 
.09 
.24 
.05 
.04 
.17 
.07 
.03 
.04 
.43 


Man-hours 

0.45 
.97 

2.68 
.57 
.39 

1.85 
.81 
.28 
.46 

3.28 


Man-hours 


Man-hours 
0.45 


Open bag 




.97 


Place 8 cartons in bag 




2.68 


Place bag on table . 




.57 


Dispense tape.. 




.39 


Close and tape bag- 




1.85 


Stamp flavor and date on bag 
Weigh bag (every tenth bag). 
Stack bag on table 




.81 




.28 




.46 


Set up equipment- - 




3.28 


Machine-regulated wait time . 


1.54 


1.54 














TotaL .- 




10.54 


1.20 


11.74 


1.54 


13.28 








Filler, chute, and basket method: 

Add 50 carton blanks to filling ma- 
chine ----- 


160 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 

100 
1,000 

167 

42 

2 


.41 


.04 
.09 
.04 
.05 
.04 
.04 
.17 
.03 
.06 
.02 
.01 
.43 


.45 
.97 
.46 
.51 
.46 
.39 

1.85 
.28 
.61 
.19 
.07 

3.28 




.45 


Open bag 


1 

2 


88 
42 
46 
42 
35 
68 
25 
55 
17 
06 
85 




.97 


Position bag on chute 




.46 


Pull 8 cartons into bag 




.51 


Place bag on table 




.46 


Dispense tape 




.39 


Close and tape bag 




1.85 


Weigh bag (everv tenth bag).. _ 
Stack bag in basket. 




.28 
.61 


Position empty basket 


.19 


Pull 4 empty baskets 4 feet to table 

Set up equipment 




.07 




3.28 


Machine-regulated wait time- 




3.76 


3.76 














Total . 




8.50 


1.02 


9.52 


3.76 


13.28 








Four-worker, manual method: 

Pick up, form, and stack empty 
carton _____ 


8,000 

8,000 
8,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
100 
1,000 
2 


7.20 

10.00 

5.60 
.88 

2.44 
.52 
.35 

1.68 
.74 
.25 
.42 

1.13 


.72 

.56 
.09 
.24 
.05 
.04 
.17 
.07 
.03 
.04 
.17 


7.92 

10.00 

6.16 
.97 

2.68 
.57 
.39 

1.85 
.81 
.28 
.46 

1.30 




7.92 


Fill carton by holding under filling 
head 




10.00 


Close full carton and place on table 




6.16 




.97 


Place 8 cartons in bag 




2.68 


Place bag on table 




.57 






.39 


Close and tape bag 




1.85 


Stamp flavor and date on bag . 
Weigh bag (everv tenth bag).. 




.81 




.28 




.46 






1.30 


Machine-regulated wait time 


7.91 


7.91 














Total -. .- 




31.21 


2.18 


33.39 




7.91 


41.30 














50 



Table 21. — Packaging in cream in pint cartons: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons in a plant manufac- 
turing 150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item — Continued 



Method and time item 



Frequency 

of 
occurrence 



Productive time 



Base time 



Fatigue and 

personal 
allowance 



Total 



Unproductive 

time 



Total labor 
requirements 



Three-worker, chute, and basket method : 
Pick up, form, and stack empty car- 
ton 

Fill carton by holding under filling 

head 

Close full carton and place on table 

Open bag 

Position bag on chute 

Pull 8 cartons into bag 

Place bag on table 

Dispense tape 

Close and tape bag • 

Weigh bag (every tenth bag) 

Stack bag in basket 

Position empty basket 

Pull 4 empty baskets 4 feet to table 

Set up equipment 

Machine-regulated wait time 



Number 



8,000 

8,000 

s, 

1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 

100 
1,000 

167 

42 

2 



Mti it-hoars 



7.20 

10.00 

5.60 

.88 

.42 

.46 

.42 

.35 

1.68 

.25 

.55 

.17 

.06 

1.13 



Man-hours 



Man-he 



Man-houn 



w 



.56 
.09 
.04 
.05 
.04 
.04 
.17 
.03 
.06 
.02 
.01 
.17 



7.92 

10.00 

6.16 

.97 

.46 

.51 

.46 

.39 

1.85 

.28 

.61 

.19 

.07 

1.30 



.13 



Man-hours 



7.92 

10.00 

6.16 

.97 

.46 

.51 

.46 

.39 

1.85 

.28 

.61 

.19 

.07 

1.30 

.13 



Total. 



29.17 



2.00 



31.17 



.13 



31.30 



1 No fatigue or personal allowance is included since cartons are filled continuously, and the filling worker must stay 
abreast of the filling pace. To compensate for fatigue incurred while filling cartons, the workers take turns at filling cartons. 



Table 22. — Packaging ice cream in 5-ounce cups: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons in a plant manufac- 
turing 150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item 



Method and time item 



Four-worker, manual method: 
Fill cup by holding under 

spout 

Place lid on cup and push aside 

Seat lid with wooden block 

Open bag 

Add 2 dozen cups 

Add 2 dozen spoons 

Place bag on table 

Dispense tape 

Close and tape bag 

Stamp flavor and date on bag. _ 
Weigh bag (every tenth bag).-_ 

Stack bag on table 

Set up equipment 

Machine-regulated wait time... 



filling 



Total. 



Frequencv 

of 
occurrence 



Number 



25,536 

25,536 

25,536 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

107 

107 

17 



Productive time 



Base time 



Man-he 



16.67 

14.94 

13.23 

.95 

6.97 

.76 

.55 

.37 

1.80 

.78 

.26 

.45 

.75 



58.48 



Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 



Man-hours 



0) 



1 . 49 
1.32 
.09 
.70 
.08 
.06 
.04 
.18 
.08 
.03 
.04 
.11 



4.22 



Total 



Man-how 



L6.67 

16.43 

14.55 

1.04 

7.07 

,84 

.61 

.41 

1.98 

.86 

.29 

.49 

.86 



62.70 



Unproductive 
time 



Man-houn 



4.84 
4.84 



Total labor 
requirements 



Man-hours 



10.67 
16.43 

I 1 . 55 

1.04 

7.07 

.84 

.61 

.41 

1.98 

.86 

.29 

.49 

.86 

4.84 

67.54 



51 



Table 22.— -Packaging ice cream in 5-ounce cups: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons in a plant manufac- 
turing 150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item — Continued 





Frequency 

of 
occurrence 


Productive time 


Unproductive 
time 




Method and time item 


Base time 


Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 


Total 


Total labor 
requirements 


Four-worker, basket method: 

Fill cup by holding under filling spout _ 
Place lid on cup and push aside 
Seat lid with wooden block _ 


Number 

25,536 

25,536 

25,536 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

107 

1,064 

177 

45 

17 


Man-hours 

16.67 

14.94 

13.23 

.95 

6.97 

.76 

.55 

.37 

1.80 

.26 

.59 

.18 

.06 

.75 


Man-hours 

i 1 ) 
1.49 
1.32 
.09 
.70 
.08 
.06 
.04 
.18 
.03 
.06 
.02 
.01 
.11 


Man-hours 

16.67 

16.43 

14.55 

1.04 

7.67 

.84 

.61 

.41 

1.98 

.29 

.65 

.20 

.07 

.86 


Man-hours 


Man-hours 
16.67 




16.43 




14.55 


Open bag. _ _ _- 




1.04 


Add 2 dozen cups 




7.67 


Add 2 dozen spoons 




.84 


Place bag on table 




.61 


Dispense tape. . 




.41 


Close and tape bag 




1.98 


Weigh bag (every tenth bag) 
Stack bag in basket. _ 




.29 




.65 


Position empty basket . 




.20 


Pull 4 empty baskets 4 feet to table 

Set up equipment 




.07 




.86 


Machine-regulated wait time _ 


5.27 


5.27 














Total.. 




58.08 


4.19 


62.27 


5.27 


67.54 








Filler, manual method: 

Add 50 cups to hopper 
Add 500 lids to hopper 


511 
51 
1,064 
1,064 
1,064 
1,064 
1,064 
1,064 
1,064 

107 

1,064 

17 


1.73 
.38 
.95 

6.97 
.76 
.55 
.37 

1.80 
.78 
.26 
.45 

2.70 


.17 
.04 
.09 
.70 
.08 
.06 
.04 
.18 
.08 
.03 
.04 
.40 


1.90 
.42 

1.04 

7.67 
.84 
.61 
.41 

1.98 
.86 
.29 
.49 

3.10 




1.90 




.42 


Open bag- 
Add 2 dozen cups 
Add 2 dozen spoons 
Place bag on table 




1.04 




7.67 




.84 




.61 


Dispense tape - - - - - - 

Close and tape bag 




.41 




1.98 


Stamp flavor and date on bag 
Weigh bag (every tenth bag) 
Stack bag on table 




.86 




.29 




.49 


Set up equipment . . 
Machine-regulated wait time 




3.10 


.16 


.16 














Total --- 




17.70 


1.91 


19.61 


.16 


19 . 77 








Filler, basket method: 

Add 50 cups to hopper 


511 

51 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

1,064 

107 

1,064 

177 

45 

17 


1.73 
.38 
.95 

6.97 
.76 
.55 
.37 

1.80 
.26 
.59 
.18 
.06 

2.70 


.17 
.04 
.09 
.70 
.08 
.06 
.04 
.18 
.03 
.06 
.02 
.01 
.40 


1.90 
.42 

1.04 

7.67 
.84 
.61 
.41 

1.98 
.29 
.65 
.20 
.07 

3.10 




1.90 


Add 500 lids to hopper 




.42 


Open bag 




1.04 


Add 2 dozen cups 




7.67 


Add 2 dozen spoons. 
Place bag on table 




.84 




.61 


Dispense tape 




.41 


Close and tape bag 




1.98 






.29 


Stack bag in basket 




.65 


Position empty basket 




.20 


Pull 4 empty baskets 4 feet to table 

Set up equipment 




.07 




3.10 


Machine-regulated wait time 


.59 


.59 














Total 




17.30 


1.88 


19.18 


.59 


19.77 









1 No fatigue or personal allowance is included since cups are filled continuously, and the filling worker must stay abreast 
of the filling pace. To compensate for fatigue incurred while filling cups, the four workers take turns at filling cups. 



52 



Table 23. — Packaging ice cream in S-ounce cups: Labor rcquirc/iimls per 1,000 gallons in a plan! manufac- 
turing 150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item 



Method and time item 



Two-worker, filler, manual method: 

Add^50 cups to hopper 

Add 500 lids to hopper. . 
( )peu hag 

Add 2 dozen cups 

Add 2 dozen spoons 

Place bag on table 

Dispense tape 

Close and tape bag 

Stamp flavor and date on bag. 
WCigh bag (every tenth bag)__. 

Stack bag on table 

Set up equipment 

Machine-regulated wait time — 



Total. 



Two-worker, filler, basket method: 

Add 50 cups to hopper 

Add 500 lids to hopper 

Open bag 

Add 2 dozen cups 

Add 2 dozen spoons 

Place bag on table 

Dispense tape 

Close and tape bag 

Weigh bag (every tenth bag) 

Stack bag in basket 

Position empty basket. _ 

Pull 4 empty baskets 4 feet to table. 

Set up equipment 

Machine-regulated wait time 



TotaL 



Five-worker, manual method: 

Fill cup by holding under filling spout 

Place lid on cup and push aside 

Seat lid with wooden block 

( )pen bag 

Add 2 dozen cups 

Add 2 dozen spoons 

Place bag on table 

Dispense tape 

Close and tape bag 

Stamp flavor and date on bag 

Weigh bag (every tenth bag) 

Stack bag on table 

Set up equipment 

Machine-regulated wait time 



Total. 



Five-worker, basket method: 

Fill cup by holding under filling spout 

Place lid on cup and push aside 

Seat lid with wooden block 

( (pen bag 

Add 2 dozen cups 

Add 2 dozen spoons 

Place bag on table 

Dispense tape 

Close and tape bag 

Weigh bag (every tenth bag) 

Stack bag in basket 

Position empty basket 

Pull 4 empty baskets 4 feet to table. . 

Set up equipment 

Machine-regulated wait time 



Frequency 

of 
occurrence 



Total. 



Nit 



mber 

858 

86 

1,780 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

17'.) 

1,786 

154 



S5S 

86 

I ,7X6 

1 , 786 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

171) 

1,786 

298 

50 

34 



4: 



42,864 

42,864 

864 

1,786 

1 , 786 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

179 

1,786 

34 



42,864 

42,864 

42,864 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

1,786 

179 

1,786 

298 

50 

34 



Productive time 



Base time 



Fatigue and 

personal 

allowance 



Man-hours 

2.87 

. 64 

1.57 

12.80 

1.27 

.92 

. 63 

3.00 

1.31 

.45 

.75 

1.38 



27.59 



2.8/ 
.64 

1.57 
12.80 

1.27 
.92 
.63 

3.00 
.45 
.98 
.31 
. II 

I 38 



26.93 



16 


67 


14 


95 


22 


06 


1 


.57 


12 


.80 


1 


.27 




92 




.63 


3 


mi 


1 


.31 




I.", 




.75 




.39 



76 . 77 



16.67 

14.95 

22.06 

1 . 57 

12.80 

1,27 

.92 

.63 

3.00 

.45 

.98 

.31 

.11 

.39 



76.11 



Man-ho 





HIS 

.29 
.06 
. 16 
.28 
.13 
.09 

in, 
.30 
.13 

HI 
.07 
.21 



2.82 



.29 
.00 
. 16 
1.28 
.13 
.09 
.06 
.30 
.04 
. 10 
.03 
(II 
.21 



2.76 



1 .49 
2.21 
. 16 
1.28 
.13 
.09 
.06 
.30 
.13 
.04 
.07 
.06 



Total 



Unproductive 

time 



Man In 



II rs 
.HI 
.70 
.73 
.08 
.40 
.01 
.69 
.30 
.44 
.49 
.82 
1 . 59 



30.41 



3.16 
.70 

1.73 
14.08 

1.40 

1 .(II 
.69 

3.30 
.49 

1.08 
.34 
.12 

1.59 



29.69 



16.67 

16.44 

24.27 

1.73 

II us 

1.40 

1 .01 

.69 

3.30 

I I I 

.49 

.82 

.45 



6.02 



0) 



1.49 
2.21 

.16 
1.28 
.13 
.09 
.06 
.30 
.04 
.10 
.03 
.01 
.06 



5 . 96 



82.79 



16.67 

16 II 

24 . 27 

1.73 

14.08 

1.40 

I .01 

.69 

3.30 

.19 

1.08 

.34 

.12 

.45 



Man-hours 



82.07 



4.52 



4.52 



5 . 24 



5.24 



Total labor 
requirements 



Man 



1.01 



1.01 



1.73 



1.73 



III I II IS 

3.16 

.70 

1.73 

14.08 

I . 1(1 

1. 01 

.69 

3.30 

1 . 44 

.49 

.82 

1.59 

4.52 



34.93 



3.16 
.70 

1.73 
I I. (IS 

1.40 

I .(II 
.69 

3.30 
.49 

1.08 
.34 
.12 

1 .59 

5.24 



34.93 



id 
16 


.67 
.4 1 


24 


.27 


1 


.73 


11 


08 


1 


.40 


1 


.01 


3 


.30 


1 


.44 




.49 




.82 




.45 


1 


.01 



83.80 



16.67 

16.11 

24.27 

1.73 

14.08 

1. 10 

1.01 

.69 

3.30 

.49 

1.08 

.34 

.12 

.45 

1.73 



83.80 



1 No fatigue or personal allowance is included since cups are filled continuously, and the filling worker must stay abreast 
of the filling pace. To compensate for fatigue incurred while filling cups, the five workers take turns filling cups. 

53 



Table 24. — Storing ice cream packaged in cans: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons in a plant manufacturing 

150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item 



Methodand time item 


Frequency 

of 
occurrence 


Base time 


Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 


Productive 
time 


Manual method: ' 

Pick up can at packaging area, transport 6 feet (average distance) 
to coldroom port, open port door, place can on ledge in cold- 
room, and return to packaging area 


Number 

200 
33 

200 

200 

200 

33 


Man-hours 

0.57 
.15 

.31 
.15 
.25 

.15 


Man-hours 

0.08 
.02 

.06 
.04 
.04 
.02 


Man-hours 
65 


Walk 20 feet from packaging area to coldroom 

Transfer cans (average distance) 20 feet from ledge to stacking 
area _ .__. 


.17 
37 


Stack cans .. _ _ 

Return from stacking area to ledge (average distance 20 feet) 

Return to packaging area- 


.19 

.29 
17 






Total 




1.58 


.26 


1.84 








Conveyor method: 
5-gallon cans: 

Push cans from roller conveyor at packaging area onto belt 
conveyor. __ _ ._ 


200 

17 

200 
17 


.08 
.07 

.16 

.07 


.01 

.01 

.04 
.01 


.09 


Walk (average distance) 20 feet from packaging area to cold- 
room (every 12 cans).. . 

Transfer cans from conveyor to stack (average distance 2 
feet) 


.08 
.20 


Walk from coldroom to packaging area.. 


.08 






Total 




.38 


.07 


.45 








2|-gallon cans: 

Push cans from roller conveyor at packaging area onto belt 
conveyor 


400 

33 

400 
33 


.15 

.15 

.32 
.15 


.02 

.02 

.07 
.02 


.17 


Walk (average distance 20 feet) from packaging area to cold- 
room (every 12 cans) 

Transfer cans from conveyor to stack (average distance 2 
feet) 1 

Walk from coldroom to packaging area 


.17 

.39 
.17 






Total.. 




0.77 


0.13 


0.90 









1 5-gallon cans are handled singly and 25-gallon cans are handled 2 at a time. 



54 











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55 



Table 26. — Loading out cans of ice cream: Labor requirements per 1,000 gallons in a plant manufacturing 

150,000 gallons annually, by method and time item 



Method and time item 


Frequency 

of 
occurrence 


Base time 


Fatigue and 
personal 
allowance 


Productive 
time 


Manual method: ' 

Transfer can 15 feet from floor stack to ledge 


Number 

200 
200 


Man-hours 

0.28 
.19 


Mat. -hours 

0.07 
.03 


Man-hours 
0.35 




.22 






Total - - 




.47 


.10 


.57 








Conveyor method : 
5-gallon cans: 

Transfer can from floor stack to conveyor (average distance 
2 feet ) 


200 


.16 


.04 


.20 






23-gallon cans: 

Transfer can from floor stack to conveyor (average distance 
2 feet) - - 


400 


.31 


.06 


.37 







1 5-gallon cans are handled singly and 2§-gallon cans are handled 2 at a time. 



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method: 

Unstack basket, carry 

(i feet, and empty 

bags onto conveyor. 
Place empty basket in 

stack 

Pull 4 empty baskets 

4 feet 

Job regulated wait 

time 




1 ■** 1 1 1 

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Pick up 4 bags 
Carry bags 15 f 
from shelf to ledg< 
Stack bags on ledge 
Return to shelf 


O 


Conveyor method: 

Pick up 4 bags fr 

stack 

Carry bags 4 feet 

h* conveyor 

Place bags on e 

veyor — 

Return to stack 


"5 

^0 



r,s 




Growth Through Agricultural Progress